Protestant Union

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Protestant Union,

in German history, an alliance of German Protestant leaders of cities and states, founded in 1608 for the avowed purpose of defending the lands, person, and rights of each individual member. Also known as the Evangelical League, it came into being after the Holy Roman emperor attempted (1607) to reestablish Roman Catholicism in DonauwörthDonauwörth
, town (1994 pop. 17,690), Bavaria, SW Germany, a port at the confluence of the Donau (Danube) and Wörnitz rivers. Its manufactures include machinery, airplanes, lace, and dolls. Historically a Swabian town, Donauwörth became (mid-13th cent.
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 and after a majority of the Reichstag, meeting in Augsburg, declared that renewal of the religious peace of 1555 (see Augsburg, Peace ofAugsburg, Peace of,
1555, temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands (cuius regio, eius religio).
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) should be conditional on the restoration of all church lands appropriated by the Protestant princes after 1552. A Catholic League, headed by Duke Maximilian IMaximilian I,
1573–1651, elector (1623–51) and duke (1597–1651) of Bavaria, one of the outstanding figures of the Thirty Years War and an ardent supporter of the Counter Reformation.
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 of Bavaria, was formed shortly afterward. The Protestant Union was weakened from the start by the absence of such powerful Protestant princes as the elector of Saxony, and it never operated very effectively. In 1621, three years after the outbreak of the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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, the union went out of existence. In French history, the alliance (1573–74) of Huguenot cities, districts, and nobles in the Wars of Religion is also known as the Protestant Union.
References in periodicals archive ?
He was eager for England to come to the assistance of persecuted Protestants abroad and, during the 1570s, led the unsuccessful charge to establish a Protestant league.
An example from Thuringia is the compatibility and personnel overlap between the "National Liberal" Protestant League and the "conservative" Home Mission.
30) The Home Mission and the Protestant League focused their energies largely on mission work at home in Germany.
Kretschmar, too, was energetically engaged in the Protestant League.
The Protestant League has often been only partially understood.
4) As Mervyn James summarizes it, this anticipated return to the militant Protestantism of an Elizabeth or a Sidney would need to unleash a several-pronged attack: "a European Protestant league, a larger investment of resources in the war with Spain, wider military commitments abroad, westward oceanic expansion, and an extended naval assault on the Spanish empire.
traces the history of the Protestant League and its conflict with the Catholic Center party over the issue of German nationalism.
A final chapter investigates the impact of the Los von Rom movement, which began in Austria but was taken up by Protestant League and other German nationalists.
Leading German literary critics, historians, liberals, and most consistently the leaders of the Protestant League (the main voice of organized political Protestantism created in 1887) identified the German nation in the history of Luther and the Reformation, in the literary (and largely Protestant) products of German Kultur, and in a vague set of ideas about moral and intellectual freedom, cultural progress, and the need for a centralized state that were consonant with the tenets of "enlightened Protestantism" (p.
In addition, this Protestant narrative, according to Smith, was integral to subsequent nationalist initiatives sponsored by the state and by independent nationalist pressure groups such as the Protestant League, the Pan-German League, the Imperial League against Social Democracy, the German Society for the Eastern Marches, and the Navy League.
In 1588, visiting Paris to supervise publication of a new edition of Essais, he was arrested by members of the Protestant League as a suspected agent of Henry of Navarre but was released after a few hours in the Bastille.
Repeated attempts during the Wilhelmine era at confessional Sammlung, such as those promoted by the Protestant League (established 1887), would founder on this split, as conservatives and liberals divided on the question of whether socialism or Ultramontanism represented the more serious threat to Germany.

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