The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a Turkic people who contributed to the ethnic stock of present-day Bulgarians.

The earliest reliable written records concerning the Proto-Bulgarians date from the fourth century, when the Proto-Bul-garians inhabited the steppes of southeastern Europe and were allies of Byzantium. After their defeat by the Goths in 480, the Proto-Bulgarians ended their alliance with Byzantium, ravaging Thrace in 499 and attacking Byzantium in the sixth century. A federation of Proto-Bulgarian tribes (Great Bulgaria), headed by Kubrat, formed in the first half of the seventh century in the Azov and Lower Volga regions but collapsed during the reign of Constans II (641–68). In the third quarter of the seventh century, under the pressure of the Khazars, some Proto-Bulgarians moved into the Kama and Middle Volga region. Others, led by Asparukh, migrated to southern Bessarabia and later to territories controlled by Byzantium along the right bank of the Danube.


Ocherki istorii SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1958.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Founded in 681, as imprint of the alliance between Slavs and Proto-Bulgarians,a the vice president pointed out.
Furthermore, Redzhepov, together with the chairman of the so called "European Institute Pomak" Efrem Mollov, claims that the Bulgarian Muslims, aka Pomaks a who are widely believed to be the descendants of Christian Bulgarians converted voluntarily or by force to Islam during the period of Ottoman Yoke a were in fact descendants of the so called Proto-Bulgarians who fled into the mountains when Knyaz Boris I, ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852-889 AD, adopted Christianity as the national religion in 864 AD, abandoning the Proto-Bulgarians' pagan religion.
He is the son of a prominent architect and the grandson of a renown historian, who studied the proto-Bulgarians.