Notable "firsts" were the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) proton-proton collider commissioned in 1971, and the proton-antiproton collider at the Super Proton Synchrotron
(SPS), which came in 1981 and produced massive W and Z particles two years later, confirming the unified theory of electromagnetic and weak forces.
The project, which began in 2009 uses a 'cloud chamber' at the Proton Synchrotron
accelerator at CERN to investigate the influence of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation.
At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, researchers use the Super Proton Synchrotron
to strip heavy atoms of their electrons, and they accelerate the bare nuclei at targets composed of various materials.
The experiment used the CERNSuper Proton Synchrotron
(SPS) to accelerate ions of oxygen to two different energies, 60 billion electronvolts (60 GeV) for each neutron and proton in the oxygen nucleus and 200 GeV per neutron and proton, and struck them against standing targets of lead.