Cell suspensions are also suitable for protoplast
isolation in studies of transitory genetic expression and transformation by Agrobacterium (Torabi et al.
For mass propagation, mutation induced breeding, somatic embryo genesis, protoplast
culture, and cell suspension culture, callus induction is the most vital phase among the in vitro studies on banana.
lysis and inhibition of growth of Bacillus licheniformis by bacitracin.
and Hall, Y.C., 1991, "Stable transformation of Sorghum bicolor protoplasts
with chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase II and b-glucuronidase genes", Theor.
Plant regeneration from cell suspension-derived protoplasts
from yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicans.
DNA can be introduced into entire plants or into protoplasts
using vectors or by direct physical insertion.
Interspecific somatic hybrids were obtained by polyethylene glycol fusion of protoplasts
from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum L.
Genetic stability of plants regenerated from cell suspension cultures of medow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and protoplasts
isolated therefrom, have also been reported (Valles et al., 1993).
Over the course of 18 chapters they cover the analysis of nuclear DNA content and it application in the determination of genome size, ploidy level, and mode of reproduction; the use of flow cytometry to estimate base composition in plant genomes; the use of flow cytometry in plant pathology; and the analysis and sorting of naked plant cells (or protoplasts
) and chloroplasts.
Three propagation methods; seeding the plates with algal spores, protoplasts
, or fragments have been identified.
Electroporation is utilized for cell transformation applications, where plasmid DNA is used as the foreign matter to transform bacteria, yeast and plant protoplasts
. But perhaps the most common use of electroporation is for gene silencing.