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(cell and molecular biology)
The living portion of a cell considered as a unit; includes the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and the plasma membrane.
Plant, fungal, or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the contents of a plant cell. The protoplast consists of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus but lacks the cell wall.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cell suspensions are also suitable for protoplast isolation in studies of transitory genetic expression and transformation by Agrobacterium (Torabi et al.
For mass propagation, mutation induced breeding, somatic embryo genesis, protoplast culture, and cell suspension culture, callus induction is the most vital phase among the in vitro studies on banana.
Protoplast lysis and inhibition of growth of Bacillus licheniformis by bacitracin.
and Hall, Y.C., 1991, "Stable transformation of Sorghum bicolor protoplasts with chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase II and b-glucuronidase genes", Theor.
Plant regeneration from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of Phalaenopsis.
Protoplasts from yeast and mycelial forms of Candida albicans.
DNA can be introduced into entire plants or into protoplasts using vectors or by direct physical insertion.
Interspecific somatic hybrids were obtained by polyethylene glycol fusion of protoplasts from tetraploid Solanum tuberosum L.
Over the course of 18 chapters they cover the analysis of nuclear DNA content and it application in the determination of genome size, ploidy level, and mode of reproduction; the use of flow cytometry to estimate base composition in plant genomes; the use of flow cytometry in plant pathology; and the analysis and sorting of naked plant cells (or protoplasts) and chloroplasts.
Three propagation methods; seeding the plates with algal spores, protoplasts, or fragments have been identified.
Electroporation is utilized for cell transformation applications, where plasmid DNA is used as the foreign matter to transform bacteria, yeast and plant protoplasts. But perhaps the most common use of electroporation is for gene silencing.