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(cell and molecular biology)
The living portion of a cell considered as a unit; includes the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and the plasma membrane.
Plant, fungal, or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed.



the contents of a plant cell. The protoplast consists of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus but lacks the cell wall.

References in periodicals archive ?
The effectiveness of the enzymatic solutions for protoplast isolation was monitored every 5 hours, and the number of protoplasts released was evaluated.
Bacillus megaterium protoplasts, ready for transformation (strain WH320)
Similar processes of chromosome elimination occur either in a spontaneous or in an induced manner during protoplast fusion (Liu et al.
1985, "Vacuolar localization of enzymatic synthesis of cinnamoylamalates in protoplasts from Raphanus sativus leaves," Physiol.
Domir plans to fuse protoplasts from the Pioneer elm and themore susceptible American elm, in a procedure that would combine the genes of two species that would not breed by normal means.
1984 Studies on the induction of chlorophyll fluorescence in barley protoplasts.
4-milliliter mixture of plasmid molecules and about a million of the enzyme-treated carrot cells, called protoplasts.
Salinity stresses increases cytoplasmic activity in maize root protoplasts.
2]-activated MAPK identified as AtMPK6 and its activity was estimated in Arabidopsis leaves and protoplasts (Desikan et al.
When Griesbach, working with petunias, injects a chromosome into the remaining protoplast, about 25 percent of the protoplasts are capable of regenerating into full plants.
Effects of different hormone treatments on non-embryogenic and embryogenic callus induction and time-term enzyme treatments on number and viability of isolated protoplasts in saffron (Crocus sativus L.
experiments with maize and wheat root tip protoplasts have revealed an