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(pshĕ`mĭshəl), Ukr. Peremyshl, city (1989 est. pop. 67,000), Podkarpackie prov., extreme SE Poland, on the San River in the Carpathian foothills. It is a trade center and has metalworking, textile, and timber-working industries. Oil and natural gas are also produced. The city was allegedly founded in the 8th cent. Between 981 and 1340 it was ruled by Kiev and Volodymyr-Volynskyy. Przemyśl obtained municipal rights and passed to Poland in the late 14th cent. Austria took the city in 1772; it reverted to Poland after World War I. Przemyśl has several old churches and the remains of a 14th-century castle.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in Poland, situated on the San River, and the administrative center of Przemyśl Województwo. Population, 55,800 (1973).

A transportation junction and industrial center, Przemyśl produces footwear, automation equipment, electrical goods, and sewing machines. There are also wood-products (fiber-boards), food-processing, and garment enterprises.

Przemyśl was founded in the tenth century, and during the next two centuries Poland, Hungary, and Kievan Rus’ contested for control over the city. In the 12th century it was included in the Galich-Volynia Principality, becoming part of Poland in 1340. As a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Przemyśl passed to Austria in 1773. At the beginning of the 20th century Przemyśl was a military stronghold, with 17 turreted forts and 24 reinforced batteries within a circumference of 45 km (7-km radius). In World War I, Russian troops surrounded the city during the battle of Galicia on Sept. 4(17), 1914. Some 130,000 Austro-Hungarians with about 1,000 pieces of artillery had sought refuge in the city. The Russian attack on September 22–24 (October 5–7) failed for lack of siege artillery. On September 28 (October 11) the siege was lifted when the Russian troops withdrew to the eastern bank of the San River. On Oct. 26 (Nov. 8), 1914, Przemyśl was besieged for a second time, and after holding out for four months its garrison, numbering 120,000 men and more than 900 guns, surrendered on Mar. 9 (22), 1915. With the withdrawal of the Russian armies from Galicia on May 21 (June 3), 1915, Przemyśl was abandoned.

The city was part of Poland from 1918 to 1939, when it became part of the USSR as a result of the reunification of the Western Ukraine with the USSR. During the Great Patriotic War (1941—45), Soviet troops fought fierce defensive battles with the fascist German troops in the Przemyśl area on June 22–25,1941. The city was liberated by the Red Army on July 27, 1944, during the L’vov-Sandomierz Operation. In 1945, in accordance with a Soviet-Polish agreement, Przemyśl became part of Poland.

The city’s architectural landmarks include a cathedral (1460–1571, rebuilt 1744) with a rotunda dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, monasteries and churches built in the 17th and 18th centuries, private homes and palaces from the 18th and 19th centuries (with sections from the 15th to 17th centuries), the ruins of a castle (after 1340, rebuilt 1612–1630), and complex fortifications constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a city in SE Poland, near the border with Ukraine on the San River: a fortress in the early Middle Ages; belonged to Austria (1722--1918). Pop.: 67 000 (latest est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005