Przewalski's horse

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Przewalski's horse

(pshəväl`skēz), wild horsehorse,
hoofed, herbivorous mammal now represented by a single extant genus, Equus. The term horse commonly refers only to the domestic Equus caballus and to the wild Przewalski's horse.
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 of Asia, Equus przewalski, E. ferus przewalski, or E. caballus przewalski, the only extant wild horse that, in the purebred state, is not descended from the domestic horse. Smaller than most domestic horses, it has a large head and bulging forehead. It is dun-colored, with an upright crest of dark hair on its head and neck, a dark stripe along the backbone, and a dark, plumed tail. The animal's former range probably extended from W Mongolia to N Xinjiang, China.

Przewalski's horse can interbreed with the domestic horse, and some authorities regard it as a subspecies of the domestic horse (E. caballus), although it has a different number of chromosomes. Because interbreeding with Mongol horses may have begun centuries ago, it is possible that even the original specimens of Przewalski's horse to be described were actually of mixed descent.

The horse was first recognized as a separate species by Nikolai Mikhailovich PrzhevalskyPrzhevalsky, Nikolai Mikhailovich
, 1839–88, Russian geographer and explorer in central and E Asia. He made five major expeditions—one to the Ussuri area in the Russian Far East (1867–68) and four to Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet (1870–85).
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, a Russian explorer and geographer, in the 1870s. In the 1960s the horse became extinct in the wild, largely due to competition with domestic livestock for grazing land and water and to hunting for horsemeat, but many specimens survived in zoos, where they breed well. Since 1992 the horse has been reintroduced with some success to several locations in Mongolia and China, using animals originally bred in European zoos.

Tarpan is the name for members of another race of the same species, E. ferus gmelini or E. caballus gmelini, which formerly ranged over the steppes of E Europe and W Asia, but has been extinct since the last century. Attempts have been made to breed back a tarpanlike horse from domestic horses believed to have been interbred with tarpans.

Wild horses are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla, family Equidae.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The research analyzed the family tree of a type of horse called a Przewalski's horse that has long been thought to be the only remaining wild horse group in the world, Nat Geo reported.
The Przewalski's horse bears the name of a Russian explorer of Polish origin, Nikolay Przewalski, who discovered in Mongolia and described the species in the 19th century.
Time budget-, behavioral synchrony- and body score development of a newly released Przewalski's horse group (Equus ferus przewalskii), in the Great Gobi B strictly protected area in SW Mongolia.
Meanwhile, the researchers are gleaning information about horse domestication by identifying genes that differ among domestic horses, Przewalski's horses and the fossils.
Przewalski's horses historically live on grasslands that are now part of China's Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region and Mongolia.
In the 20th century, hunting brought Przewalski's horses to the verge of extinction.
On one hand, anecdotal and scientific reports suggest that 25 years after the catastrophic graphite fire in the Number 4 reactor released a cloud of radioactive material, local populations of wolf, lynx, elk, wild boar, deer, eagles, bats and other animals, such as these Przewalski's horses, are thriving.
Another major breeding program at the world's zoos and the Wild Animal Park is for the Przewalski's horse, the world's original equine.
These six Przewalski's horses belong to one stable family group has been successfully bred and raised offspring after artificially selecting and grouping.
The result could mean that domestic horses and Przewalski's horses interbred after their subspecies split or that Przewalski's horses actually derived from domestic horses.
RSPB Cymru has just bought 11 Carneddau ponies to manage moor land habitats around Lake Vyrnwy and the Forestry Commission is using three rare Przewalski's horses to graze a site in Clocaenog Forest.
Out of 1, 500 Przewalski's horses alive worldwide, all are descended from just 13 animals, which were in captivity.