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(also Psammetichus I), founder and first pharaoh of the 26th (Saitic) Dynasty; ruled Egypt from 663 B.C. to 610 or 609 B.C.
Psamtik initially ruled the city of Sais. With the aid of Greek mercenaries, he drove the Assyrians from Egypt and then overcame opposition from the Theban priesthood to unify the entire country, making Sais his capital. He gave protection to Greek merchants and artisans, who founded the Greek colony of Naucratis during his reign. The growing strength of Babylonia and Media, which posed a potential threat to Egypt, led Psamtik to support Assyria toward the end of his reign.