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(vertebrate zoology)
The parrots, a monofamilial order of birds that exhibit zygodactylism and have a strong hooked bill.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an order of birds with a body length ranging from 9.5 cm to 1 m. The plumage, which is often brightly colored, is usually green, frequently mixed with red and deep blue. Species with black or gray plumage are relatively rare. The males and females usually have the same coloration. The bill is thick and high, and the culmen articulates with the frontal bones. The birds are able to crush very hard fruits with their bills; in addition, when they climb trees, they use their bills to grasp the branches. The feet have strong talons, and the first and fourth toes are turned backward. The birds fly rapidly. Some species, such as Pezoporus wallicus and the owl parrot (Strigops habroptilus), have lost the ability to fly.

The order Psittaciformes consists of a single family, which embraces 316 species. The birds are distributed in the subtropics and tropics of both hemispheres. In the Americas, their range extends from 40° N lat. to 54° S lat. The majority of species live on plains; a few penetrate high into the mountains, to elevations 3,600 m above sea level. The birds most commonly live in flocks. As a rule, they are arboreal, but some species inhabit open spaces.

The birds nest in tree hollows, termite nests, rock fissures, and cliffs; some nest on the ground. Only a few species line their nest with grass, which they carry in their bill or between the feathers of the upper tail coverts (Agapornis). The Argentinian Myiopsitta build colonial nests in trees, with divisions for each couple. A clutch contains one to 12 (most often two to five) white eggs, which are incubated for about three weeks. The young are born naked and blind.

Psittaciformes feed on fruits, seeds, buds, nectar, and, sometimes, insects. They are beneficial in distributing seeds and pollinating plants; however, some may seriously damage plantings and orchards. A number of species, including love birds, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and cockatoos, are popular pets owing to their decorative plumage and their ability to imitate various sounds, including human speech. They may be carriers of psittacosis, a serious disease that afflicts man.


Zhizn’ zhivotnykn, vol. 5. Moscow, 1970.
Naturgeschichte der Vögel. Edited by R. Berndt and W. Meise. Stuttgart, 1962.
A New Dictionary of Birds. Edited by A. L. Thomson. London, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(5,6) The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in the population of parrots seen at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre, Avian and Exotic Service, between 2007 and 2012 was 18.3% (based on 1912 psittacine birds with a cutoff high cholesterol value of 8 mmol/L [309 mg/dL]; cut-off based on average upper reference limit of plasma cholesterol concentration in Psittaciformes), (7) (H.
En este estudio las infecciones simples predominaron sobre las multiples, como ha sido reportado en aves Paseriformes, Pisciformes, Psittaciformes y Stringiformes de Costa Rica (Sibaja, 2006; Gonzalez, 2016), lo cual indica que las aves han estado expuestas a fuentes de infeccion limitada, favoreciendose las infecciones con parasitos de ciclos directos (Sibaja, 2006).
Pertenecen al orden de los Psittaciformes, a la familia Psittacidae y al genero Ara, comprenden 14 especies que habitan en la region neotropical y se caracterizan por su gran tamano y colorido plumaje (Bird Life International, 2015).
In Santa Catarina state, the breeding of Passeriformes comes second only to the breeding of Psittaciformes. Parrots, due to their ability to imitate the human voice combined with their beauty, are the most popular and sought after birds as pets worldwide, after dogs and cats (Abramson et al., 1995; Sick, 1997).
Em aves encontram-se casos descritos principalmente em tucanos (Picidae: Ramphastidae) e aves do paraiso (Passeriformes: Corvidae) (11), mas e tambem observado em mainas, estorninhos (Passeriformes: Sturnidae) (12,13), sairas (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) (14), cacatuas (Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae) e loris (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) (15,16).
A new species of Pterothominx Freitas, (Nematoda: Capillariidae) parasitising psittacine birds (Psittaciformes).
Orden PSITTACIFORMES Familia Psittacidae Aratinga acuticaudata (Vieillot) (calancate comun).
(28.) Beaufrere H, Characterization, prevalence, and risk factors of spontaneous and experimental atherosclerosis and vascular imaging in psittaciformes [PhD dissertation], Louisiana State University (data not shown).
El genero Neopsittaconirmus Conci, 1942 esta conformado por 31 especies, todas ellas parasitan aves Psittaciformes del Viejo Mundo.
The relationship between forest fragmentation and the potential geographical distribution of psittacids (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico