Psychotropic Agent


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Psychotropic Agent: Psychotropic drug

Psychotropic Agent

 

any of a group of drugs that act mainly on the mind. Unlike other agents that affect the mental processes, psychotropic agents can regulate impaired mental activity and are therefore used in the treatment of mental disorders. They act not only on the higher centers of the central nervous system (psychotropic action) but also on other centers of the central nervous system (neurotropic action) and on somatic functions (somatotropic action); for this reason they are used in neurology, internal medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. The development of psychotropic agents in the 1950’s gave rise to a new branch of psychiatry called clinical psychopharmacology.

Most modern classifications of psychotropic agents are based on the system proposed in 1957 by the French psychiatrist J. Delay. Delay’s system distinguished psycholeptic, psychoanaleptic, and psychodysleptic agents. Psycholeptic agents (psychoinhibitors), which possess sedative action, are divided into neuroleptics, which are effective in psychoses, and tranquilizers, which are used in the treatment of neuroses, reactive conditions, and psychopathies. Psychoanaleptic agents (stimulants, energizers, activators) are divided into antidepressant and psychotonic agents. Psychodysleptic compounds (psychotomimetics) induce experimental psychoses and are not used in clinical practice. Each group of drugs differs from the others in chemical structure or probable mechanism of action. Among the antidepressants, for example, are agents that relieve morbid depression because they contain tricyclic compounds, such as imipramine and amitryptyline. Antidepressants also include monamine oxidase inhibitors, whose antidepressant action is related to their effect on neurohormone metabolism.

REFERENCES

Avrutskii, G. Ia. Sovremennye psikhotropnye sredstva i ikh primenenie v lechenii shizofrenii. Moscow, 1964.
Raiskii, V. A. Psikhofarmakologicheskie sredstva v meditsinskoi praktike. Moscow, 1972.
Aleksandrovskii, Iu. A. Klinicheskaia farmakologiia trankvilizatorov. Moscow, 1973.
Delay, J., and P. Deniker. Métodes chimiothérapiques en psychiatrie. Paris, 1961.
Kalinowsky, L. B., and P. H. Hoch. Somatic Treatments in Psychiatry. New York-London, 1961.
Bobon, D. P. “Classifications and Terminology of Psychotropic Drugs.” Pharmakopsychiatrie, 1973, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–12.

G. IA. AVRUTSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Many of the psychotropic agents have not been well researched in terms of their efficacy and safety in younger subpopulations.
From the use of brandy to soothe infants to other sedating drugs like barbiturates and opiates, children have been administered psychotropic agents as long as such agents have existed; however, research on such practices dates only to the early 20th century.
While psychotropic agents are believed to be the most common contributor to falls, "all medicines, including antihypertensives and diuretics, place people at increased risk for these accidents," she adds.
Psychotropic agents are often used to control the severe agitation typical of patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Caffeinism associated with greater use of other psychotropic agents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 22, 565-571.
M had already had two prolonged psychiatric hospitalizations involving treatment by psychotropic agents and psychotherapy.
A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.
And Tablets package, Package II Drugs, Drugs Package III Package IV sprays, ointments V Package VI Package psychotropic agents and drugs, ampoules Package VII, Package Specialist wound dressings VIII, IX packet drops, suppositories Package X, XI Syrups package, package XII Immunoglobulins Package XIII Tablets, Package IV Medications Tablets package XV, XVI package Medicines, Medicines package seventeenth, eighteenth package drugs, dressings nineteenth special package, package XX Medicines, Medicines package XXI, XXII package drugs.
Approximately 15% of the children given multiple psychotropic agents took three or more classes of the drugs.
A Nobel Prize-winner in physiology/medicine introduces Snyder (Johns Hopkins U.), a pioneer in the field of psychopharmacology who helped identify receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs and their role in how psychotropic agents work.
In committee debate and in full congress, physicians at the House of Delegates meeting expressed concern that pharmacists were exercising this provision to impede access to certain medications, including emergency contraceptives and psychotropic agents.
Xerostomia, or dry mouth, caused by psychotropic agents and an altered immune response, facilitates growth of pathogenic bacteria and can lead to several dental diseases (Table).