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The equivalent name for Polypodiophyta.
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This is a debatable plant. Must eat cooked or steamed, not raw, although some people do eat fiddleheads raw and end up getting throat and gastric cancers. Fiddleheads are the young furled (coiled up) heads of a young fern. Asians dip them into boiling water, then dry them and then grind them into powder, and whenever they cook food, they add that powder to their food. Apparently it helps emulsify and break down bad fats in the body. You can chop up the stem and steam it, tastes similar to green beans, can be eaten with a little bit of butter and salt. To cook fiddleheads, remove the yellow/brown skin, then boil the sprouts twice with a change of water between boilings to remove toxins. The roots of the common Male Fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), was used to kill tapeworms, but many consider it too toxic. When using ferns, consult with local expert to double check. Some are carcinogenic.



a large group of higher plants to which are sometimes assigned all higher seedless plants except mosses (Bryophyta). Unlike the bryophytes, the sporophyte—the asexual generation—is well developed and divided, except in Psilotophyta, into stems, leaves, and roots. Spores develop, from which emerges the gametophyte—the sexual generation. The gametophyte is poorly developed, almost undifferentiated, and bears sexual organs (in males, antheridia, and in females, archegonia). After fertilization, another asexual generation develops.

The Pteridophyta include ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, selaginellas, isoetes, psilotaceous plants, and many extinct groups of plants. They were formerly regarded as a single taxonomic group —a division (or subdivision)—and were divided into a number of classes. On the basis of an extensive study of the vegetative and reproductive organs of extinct and extant plants, the group Pteridophyta has been divided into several natural divisions, each of which has its own history. These include the Psilotophyta, Lycopodiophyta, Equisetineae, and Polypodiophyta.

References in periodicals archive ?
This treatment includes all species of pteridophytes known to occur naturally and those that have become naturalized in southeast Alabama.
Actually Pteridophytes includes ferns, club mosses (one of the main plants to form coal millions of years ago) and horsetails (one of our most pernicious weeds) but here I am concerned only with the ferns.
Gymnosperms (conifers) and pteridophytes (ferns) lack flowers; their sexual reproductive organs are cones or spores, respectively.
Ground-flora vegetation (vascular plants <1 m tall, including pteridophytes, graminoids, forbs, woody vines, and shrubs) was sampled in each of the eight 1.
Nomenclature of pteridophytes follows the Flora of North America, Volume 2 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993).
Because of this proliferation of Pteridophytes, we are able to collect ferns right from the patch of green in front of our cottage that we call a lawn.
2000 The distribution and floristic composition of Pteridophytes on Mount Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
The ground layer is typically dominated by a dense bryophyte cover that supports large populations of pteridophytes such as Cystopteris fragilis, Gymnocarpium robertianum, and Equisetum scirpoides.
Because all early fossil seeds found so far look almost identical in structure, most plant biologists assume that a single group of spore-spreading plants, or Pteridophytes, led to nonflowering seed-bearing plants, the gymnosperms, says paleobotanist Lawrence C.