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(22) Whatever Antonius' reasoning, it was at this point that Cleopatra began to use a new system of dating to calculate her (and her co-ruler Ptolemy XV Caesar's) reign, perhaps to commemorate the point at which she had indeed succeeded in restoring the Ptolemaic Empire as it had been during the reigns of Ptolemy I Soter and Ptolemy II Philadelphos.
The Egyptian crocodile god Sobek and his various local manifestations seem to have been particularly favoured by the Ptolemaic dynasty from the reign of Ptolemy I Soter through to the reign of Cleopatra VII.
D.) Ptolemy is oft vilified for inventing a cosmological system so intellectually sound that it was scientifically unassailable for nearly 1500 years!
There can be no doubt that the figure seen from the back is indeed the celebrated Greek mathematician-cosmographer Ptolemy of Alexandria.(11) Good reason to regard this character as a secure member of the School of Athens lies in the fact that he wears a crown, an indication of the confusion in Renaissance times of this renowned polymath - sometimes called "King" Ptolemy - with the dynasty of Macedonian kings of the same name who ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 3, 4 OMITTED].(12) The particular crown that Ptolemy wears, however, is unique in Renaissance painting, suggesting that Raphael had already acquired at this time strong archaeological interests.(13) By holding a globe, Ptolemy is clearly identified with geography.
He shows that Ptolemy is not unaware of this potential objection, and explore two ways in which he seeks to fend it off.
Claudius Ptolemy is rightly remembered for his scientific contributions, and his Mathematical Composition--hereafter referred to by its more common title, the Almagest, from its Latinized Arabic moniker--stands as one of the most influential texts in the history of science.
Pity poor Hopkins, who as Ptolemy is given pages and pages and pages of exposition to fill in the many dead spaces of the film--one wonders how much of this narration was cooked up in the editing room to patch over scenes that had to be rejected.
Anabasis 3.6.s Although friends of Alexander's were not necessarily friends with each other, an association between Laomedon and Ptolemy is evident in that the former was likely to have been part of Ptolemy's conspiracy to hijack Alexander's funeral carriage, see Heckel, pp.
5.3), and Ptolemy is well in control of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia.
Ptolemy is credited with inheriting a fully developed Egyptian administrative system to which he made changes as necessary; but at no point does the author attempt to distinguish the Egyptian legacy from Macedonian innovations.