Rather than using a password, users verify their identities with public-key
cryptography or biometric scan.
Adleman, "A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key
cryptosystems," Communications of the ACM 21, vol.
There are two main types of encryption 6 symmetric, in which the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the data; and asymmetric, or public-key
, which involves a pair of mathematically linked keys, one shared publicly to let people encrypt messages for the key pair's owner, and the other stored privately by the owner to decrypt messages.
in their works, this drawback can be improved by reducing the public-key
size to O([[lambda].sup.7])  Such an improvement can be achieved by encrypting with a quadratic form in the public-key
Quantum computing poses a real threat to the public-key
cryptography protocols and the underlying public-key
infrastructure (PKI) that keeps data secure today.
Additionally, NuCypher's technology, called proxy re-encryption, is a type of public-key
encryption that allows a third-party proxy to transform ciphertexts from one public key to another (using re-encryption keys) without learning anything about the underlying message.
Waters, "Efficient ring signatures without random oracles," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key
Cryptography (PKC '07), pp.
Beyond mixnet, Riffle uses the standard of onion encryption employed by Tor, which safeguards browsing data packets with multiple encryption layers, including a standard public-key