publican

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publican

[Lat.,=state employee], in ancient Rome, man who was employed by the state government under contract. As early as c.200 B.C. there was a class of men in Rome accustomed to undertaking contracts involving public works and tax collecting; the tax collectors made the most profit. The publicans were usually equitesequites
[Lat.,=horsemen], the original cavalry of the Roman army, chosen, according to legend, by Romulus from the three ancient Roman tribes; the equites were selected from the senatorial class on the basis of wealth.
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, or capitalists. In the Gospels—which showed the general detestation, particularly in Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine, in which the publicans were held—the publicans mentioned were tax collectors. From the 1st cent. A.D. the abuses of the publicans began to be corrected, and by the end of the 2d cent. the publicans as a group had disappeared.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Publican

 

in ancient Rome, a person, usually an equite, who obtained state property—land, mines, saltworks—by bidding in order to exploit it. Publicans also obtained contracts for public construction or supply and the right to collect state taxes. In the case of major transactions, publican companies were established, which unrestrainedly exploited and ruined the population, especially in the provinces. From the time of the empire, beginning in the first century AD., publican activity was restricted, and tax collecting was transferred to state officials.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

publican

1. (in Britain) a person who keeps a public house
2. (in ancient Rome) a public contractor, esp one who farmed the taxes of a province
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Por ejemplo, el enfasis en lo cuantitativo sobre lo cualitativo, la renuencia a publicar resultados negativos o la tentacion de ocultar informaciones que pueden producir perjuicios economicos a los patrocinadores.
Ante esta situacion inicial de desconcierto, la falta de experiencia investigadora y de redaccion cientifica (ya fuere para su defensa como para su publicacion), la necesidad de publicar mucho y rapido que exige el requerimiento de prestigio investigador y cientifico a traves del impacto de sus articulos o investigaciones, el doctorando aprovecha la realizacion de su tesis doctoral para, no solo la practica de la escritura cientifica, sino tambien para enfrentarse por primera vez al ciclo de publicacion de articulos cientificos.
La expresion "publicar o morir" que acicateaba al investigador para que no deje sus descubrimientos en el cuaderno de apuntes, puede transformarse en "publicar para vivir" que mas bien describe a un investigador que se obliga a publicar, tanto como la figura de un burocrata que se obliga a marcar la tarjeta al entrar al trabajo ...
Na area da Psicologia, as preocupacoes tambem acometem os alunos e os profissionais que se dispoem a publicar algo.