Pulmonary Emphysema

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Emphysema, Pulmonary


the name for various pathological conditions characterized by an excessive amount of air in the lungs.

Pulmonary emphysema may be congenital or acquired, localized or diffuse, and acute or chronic. In humans, it is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme α1-antitrypsin. Acute acquired emphysema is caused by acute bronchial obstruction, as in bronchial asthma. Chronic diffuse emphysema often develops as a complication of chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and other diseases of the bronchopulmonary system as a result of bronchial obstruction. Exhaling requires increased pressure within the alveoli, which leads to compression of small bronchi, entry of air into collapsed alveoli through the interstitial pores, and merging of the alveoli.

The disease also decreases the elasticity of pulmonary tissue. The volume of the lungs increases, the alveolar septa become attenuated, and the capillaries break down. Patients suffer from a cough, sometimes with sputum, as well as shortness of breath and difficulty in exhaling. The chest is barrel-shaped, and the intercostal spaces are flattened. Characteristic body changes are revealed by percussion and auscultation of the lungs, X-ray examinations, electrocardiograms, and the determination of the lung capacity and other parameters of external respiratory function. Progressive emphysema gives rise to cor pulmonale and pulmonary and cardiac insufficiency.

Treatment depends on the main process in the lungs. It includes the use of antispasmodics, expectorants, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, sulfanilamides, and corrective exercise. Prevention requires the prompt treatment of chronic respiratory diseases, especially chronic bronchitis.


Mukharliamov, N. M. Legochnoe serdtse. Moscow, 1973.
Malova, M. N. Emfizema legkikh. Moscow, 1975.
Acute pulmonary emphysema also occurs in animals, for example, horses, oxen, and draft dogs after strenuous work. It also occurs as a result of constriction of the lumen of the respiratory pathways or bronchi, or extensive inflammation of the lungs. Treatment includes the administration of sedatives, expectorants, and disinfectants. Chronic pulmonary emphysema develops from acute pulmonary emphysema or some disease associated with severe coughing. It is incurable.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gevenois, "Pulmonary emphysema: objective quantification at multidetector row CT-comparison with macroscopic and microscopic morphometry," Radiology, vol.
Comparison of computed density and microscopic morphometry in pulmonary emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:187-92.
Responsible mechanisms for the formation of enlarged alveoli in the pulmonary emphysema include the disintegration and disruption of the alveolar epithelium following the injury of alveolar epithelium.
Michels et al., "Exercise intolerance and systemic manifestations of pulmonary emphysema in a mouse model," Respiratory Research, vol.
The histology of generalized pulmonary emphysema: the genesis of the early centrilobular lesion: focal emphysema.
cerradoensis strain was isolated from the sputum sample of an 82-year-old man with pulmonary emphysema. On October 16, 2014, the man sought care in the study hospital's emergency department for increasing dyspnea of a few days' duration that had not improved despite treatment with corticosteroids and levofloxacin (500 mg 1x/d for 3 days).
Zhu et al., "Interferon y induction of pulmonary emphysema in the adult murine lung," Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
The distributions of smoking, alcohol abuse, bronchiectasis, pulmonary emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and living and working conditions between males and females were compared using the [chi square] test.
Overview of the pathology of pulmonary emphysema in the human.
For example, in pulmonary emphysema, alveolar septal destruction promotes the enlargement of alveoli, manifested as blebs and bullae.
But Mr Bulteel, a retired accountant, had been in poor health for a number of years, suf-suf fering from pulmonary emphysema, and had moved into a care home a few years before his death.
Huge amounts of data have been collected about this disease of civilization: experimental, clinical, functional and ultrastructural, including those that point to common pathogenic mechanisms in the development of AS and pulmonary emphysema (PE), which is also widespread [2-5].

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