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(invertebrate zoology)
A subclass of the gastropod mollusks which contains the “lung”-bearing snails; the gills have been lost and in their place the mantle cavity has become a pulmonary sac.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a subclass of Gastropoda, or gastropod mollusks.

Most pulmonates have well-developed shells and lack opercula. The number of known species is 15,000 (according to other data, 35,000); there are more than a thousand species in the USSR. Most are land or freshwater snails (some are marine). They breathe by means of a unique lung—a cavity between the mantle and the body, whose superior wall is threaded with a rich network of blood vessels. In species that live at great depths or in fast-running water, the lung fills with water and the snails breathe the oxygen dissolved in it. Pulmonates are hermaphrodites and develop without a larval stage.

There are two orders. Basommatophora are predominantly freshwater species, with eyes located at the base of the single pair of cephalic antennae (Ancylus, Planorbis, and pond snails). Sty-lommatophora are land species with two pairs of antennae and eyes at the tips of the superior pair (the edible snail—Helix pomatia—and slugs). Many pulmonates are intermediate hosts of parasitic worms that harm domestic and commercial animals. Some are agricultural pests (Achatina and slugs). Some large pulmonates, such as the edible snail, are used as food by humans.


Zhadin, V. I. Molliuski presnykh i solonovatykh vod SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.
Likharev, I. M., and E. S. Rammel’meier. Nazemnye molliuski fauny SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Durand et al., "Bridging gaps in the molecular phylogeny of the Lymnaeidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), vectors of Fascioliasis," BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol.
(1964) Introduced enemies of the Giant African snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich, in Hawaii (Pulmonata: Achatinidae).
1988: A new subgenus of Helminthoglypta (Gastropoda: Pulmonata, Helminthoglyptidae) with the description of a new species from San Bernardino County, California.
Sobre Bradybaena similaris Ferussac (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Fruticicolidae) Copula y funcionamiento del oviducto durante el periodo de fecundacion y formacion del huevo.
On the other hand Coleoptera (26.23%) Hemiptera (25.63%) Diptera (20.22%) and Pulmonata (12.27%) were dominant in the center of wheat whereas Hemiptera (33.40%) Diptera (19.91%) Hymenoptera (13.06%) and Coleoptera (12.63%) were the most abundant macro-invertebrate assemblages on the weed center.
The taxonomic status of Philomycus togatus (Pulmonata: Philomycidae): A morphological and electrophoretic comparison with Philomycus carolinianus.
Vitrinizonites latissimus (Pulmonata: Zonitidae) and Vertigo clappi (Pupillidae) from eastern Kentucky.
from northwest Arkansas, U.S.A., the anatomy of the Polygyra plicata group, and the validity of the genus Millerelix Pratt, 1981 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Polygyridae).
Pond snails, as members of the subclass Pulmonata, do not have an operculum.
On the variation, nomenclature, distribution, and taxonomic position of Limax (Lehmannia) valentianus Ferrusac (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).