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a late form of group marriage that was observed in the 19th century among Hawaiians; in a punaluan family, several sisters or more distant female relations were married to several men, who became their common husbands. L. H. Morgan erroneously believed that the punaluan family was a universal form, following the consanguineal family, in the development of the family in the prehistoric era. In The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (4th ed., 1891), F. Engels noted that Morgan incorrectly ascribed universality to the punaluan family (see K. Marx and F. Engels, Sock, 2nd ed., vol. 21, p. 47). Engels was proven correct in subsequent research.