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(pŭnjä`bē), language belonging to the Indic group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. See Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Panjabi), the language of the Punjabis, spoken in eastern Pakistan, northwestern India (primarily in the state of Punjab), and elsewhere in India. Punjabi has more than 21 million speakers in Pakistan and more than 15 million in India (1971, estimate), where it is an official language. Punjabi, one of the Indo-Aryan languages of the Indo-European language family, is divided into Maji, Doabi, Malwai, Powadi, Rathi, and Bhatiani dialects. It has four tones—level, rising, pharyngealized falling, and plain falling—to indicate meaning and grammatical function. Punjabi is an analytic and inflectional language. Grammatical features include a well-developed case system, the inflection of certain adjectives for gender only in the predicative function, and subject, indirect-object, and relational adverbial modifiers.

The oldest written work in Punjabi is the Adi-Granth (or Granth Sahib), the scriptures of Sikhism, dating to the 12th through 17th centuries. Punjabi is written in Gurmukhi, a phonetic and syllabic script that indicates tones. The script is derived from the Brahmi writing system.


Smirnov, Iu. A. “Obnaruzhenie chetvertogo tona ν iazyke pandzhabi i faringalizovannogo kharaktera drugogo, izvestnogo tona.” Uch. zap. Gos. in-ta mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii, 1971, fasc. 7.
Gill, H. S., and H. A. Gleason. A Reference Grammar of Panjabi. Hartford, Conn., 1963.
Duni Chandra. Panjabi bhasha da wiakarana. Chandigarh [1964].
Smirnov, U. A. The Composite Sentence: Main Problems. Chandigarh [1966].
Panjabi Kosh, Patiala, vols. 1–4. [No place] 1955–67.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, Panjabi
the state language of the Punjab, belonging to the Indic branch of the Indo-European family
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
It will also establish partnerships with institutions around the world that will connect scholarship on Punjabi at the University of Sargodha with institutions around the world that engage with the study of Punjabi language, culture and history.
Lahore-based Punjabi literary magazine Puncham's Editor Maqsood Saqib said if this was the Citizen's Portal the prime minister was proud of, why the language of the most populous province (Punjab) and the language of the biggest province (Balochistan) were left out of the portal.
There are various studies that talk about the lack of promotion of Punjabi in educational sector in Pakistan (Rahman, 2005; Asher, 2008).
For Punjabis living outside Punjab, the top 5 cities with the highest number of registrations are Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune, Kolkata, and Lucknow.
Paramjeet Singh, co-convenor of the ISC Punjabi Wing, delivered the vote of thanks.
In the villages, people are seen dancing to the tunes of Punjabi folk music and enjoying the festival in a free-spirited manner.
Three of the top 10 songs on Gaana, the audio streaming service owned by Times Internet Ltd, in 2018--Yo Yo Honey Singh's "Dil Chori" (Sonu Ke Titu Ki Sweety), Guru Randhawa's independent single "Lahore" and Badshah's "Tareefan" (Veere Di Wedding)--are all chartbusters with strong Punjabi tones.
Hussain further stated that Lahore is still the center of Punjabi film as it still has countless talented directors and producers that can create blockbuster films.
Punjabi Legends scored 105 runs losing six wickets while chasing Rajputs' modest total of 117 runs for 5 in ten overs.
His spell of four wickets for 21 runs gave Punjabi Legends, who could post only 107-5 in 10 overs, an impressive 36-run victory.
Grade 11 and 12 students in British Columbia were welcome to submit short stories written in Punjabi and English.
The book contains thematic topics regarding literary works of Punjabi authors and poets on Freedom Movement of Pakistan.

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