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(Panjabis), the main population of the geographical and historical region of Punjab, now occupied by the states of Punjab and Haryana in India and the province of Punjab in Pakistan. They number more than 58 million (1972, estimate). The majority speak Punjabi, and the rest speak Hindi in India or dialects of Lahnda and Urdu in Pakistan. In India most Punjabis are Sikhs or Hindus, and in Pakistan nearly all are Muslims.

The Punjabis evolved through the amalgamation of various indigenous ethnic groups, which from earliest times intermingled with other peoples who settled in the area as a result of the Aryan, Saka, Arab, and other invasions. The largest ethnic groups are the Jats, Rajputs, and Gujars.

From the third millennium B.C. the Punjabis have been famous as the creators of an advanced culture, known as the Harappa civilization, and the founders of several powerful states, such as Taxila. The chief occupation of the Punjabis is agriculture, and wheat, grown on irrigated land, is the main crop. Weaving, pottery, rug-making, and artistic wood carving are also highly developed. Many Punjabis, particularly those in India, are skilled workers and technicians. Both in India and Pakistan the literacy rate among Punjabis is significantly higher than among neighboring peoples.


Narody Iuzhnoi Azii. Moscow, 1963.


References in periodicals archive ?
Lala Yodh Raj was a highly revered figure among the Punjabis of that time, coming as he did from the long line of devoted Lalas and became more so when he assured the hundreds of thousands of account holders who migrated to India telling them that their money in the bank was safe.
Speaking on the occasion, Chatta said that the thousands of years old cultural heritage of Punjab was enshrined in the Punjabi language and literature churned out from the both sides of the Indo-Pak border.
And, of course, Punjabis have spread themselves around the globe and are publicising the talent, the competence, the reliability, and the energy that characterise the Punjab.
After introducing a notion of Punjabi identity, the article provides a brief description of these dance forms, their agrarian origins and their gendered natures, as well as of the types of events at which these dances are performed among Canadian Punjabis, and specifically, Jat Sikhs.
Navdeep (Jimmy Shergill), the self-styled dude of university, falls in love with Harman (Juhee Bababr), a shy studious Punjabi girl.
From the evidence of memory-work produced by contemporary British Asian artists, musicians and writers, it is evident that, on the contrary, the "shattered mirror" can be reassembled at least for some Punjabis living in diaspora; and in ways that remain difficult, in fact, for Punjabis who continue to live within South Asia.
Speaking of the Punjabis, West Pakistan's dominant ethnic group, a 60-year-old member of the local Bangla Desh civil administration says: "The Punjabi brutes have tortured our people as no other people have been tortured.
Meeting the television programming needs of one of America's biggest ethnic audiences, SES AMERICOM, an SES company (Euronext Paris and Luxembourg stock exchanges: SESG), today announced it is distributing JUS Punjabi, the country's first Punjabi-language network serving the Indo-Punjabi, Sikh, and South Asian communities throughout the United States.
The Peninsula Studio started the Rangley Punjabis project in January met over 438 musicians from small towns and villages of Punjab.
All the Punjabis get together as this is a festival mainly celebrated in Punjab.
Badal urged non- resident Punjabis to contribute enormously for promotion of education and healthcare services besides strengthening economic and social ties.
AN innovative use of Pinglish ( a mix of English and Punjabi) and reaching out to offshore Punjabis has rekindled hope for the revival of regional Punjabi cinema.