an Eskimo culture that existed from 600 to 1100 A.D. along the shores and on the islands of the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait and on the neighboring arctic shores, from the mouth of the Kolyma River to Point Barrow. The culture was discovered by H. B. Collins in 1928 on the Punuk and St. Lawrence islands.
The Punuk culture developed from the earlier Ancient (Old) Bering Sea Culture, differing from it in the use of simple bone toggle-harpoon heads with single lateral barbs, in a predominance of polished slate implements, and in the use of whale bones in the construction of dwellings. Sculpture and engraving became simplified and stylized, and curvilinear designs were replaced by geometrical designs. In addition to seal and walrus hunting, whaling from large boats and hunting on land were also developed. War implements also appeared with the Punuk culture (bone armor plating of Asiatic origin has been found).
REFERENCESRudenko, S. I. Drevniaia kul’lura Beringova moria i eskimosskaia problema. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Collins, H. B. Archaeology of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. Washington, D.C., 1937.
Bandi, H. G. Urgeschichte der Eskimo. Stuttgart, 1965.