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(po͝orä`nə): see Sanskrit literatureSanskrit literature,
literary works written in Sanskrit constituting the main body of the classical literature of India. Introduction

The literature is divided into two main periods—the Vedic (c.1500–c.200 B.C.
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canonical texts of Hinduism.

The oldest puranas date from the middle of the first millennium B.C., but the basic texts that have come down to us appeared chiefly in the second half of the first millennium. The most valuable, by literary and historical considerations, are the Markandeya Purana, Vayu Purana, Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana, and Matsya Purana. Depending on which god the purana is dedicated to, there are Vishnuite, Saiva, and Brahmanic puranas, but, as a whole, they express the basic religious, social, and ethical principles of Hinduism.

In content and form, the puranas resemble ancient Indian epic poetry. They present cosmogonic legends, myths about the origins of all creatures, and the genealogy of the gods, divine sages, and legendary dynasties. The ethical and metaphysical ideas of the puranas influenced most of the philosophers of medieval India. Poets and dramatists also used the myths of the puranas in their works. The Bhagavata Purana, in which the cult of ecstatic love for god (bhakti) is preached and legends about the life of Krishna are retold, has especially influenced religious and literary traditions in the modern Indian languages.


Bhagavata Purana, vols. 1–5. Translated and published by E. Burnouf et al. Paris, 1840–98.
Vayu Purana, vols. 1–2. Calcutta, 1880–88.
Matsya Purana. Poona, 1907.
Markandeya Purana. Bombay, 1924.
Vishnu-Purana, vols. 1–5, 3rd ed. Translated by H. H. Wilson. Calcutta, 1972.
In Russian translation:
Lallu Ji Lal. Prem Sagar. Translated from Hindi with introduction and notes by A. P. Barannikov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.


Wilson, H. H. Puranas or an Account of Their Contents and Nature. Calcutta, 1911.
Pusalker, A. D. Studies in the Epics and Puranas. Bombay, 1955.
An Anthology of the Epics and Puranas. Edited by S. K. De and R. C. Hazra. New Delhi, 1959.


References in periodicals archive ?
Bharambe VK, Arole VU, Puranam V, Kulkarni PP, Kulkarni PS.
The participants report the extent to which they identify with their team by rating items, such as "I feel that I am really part of my project group." To measure interpersonal initiative we asked participants to evaluate the behaviors of all the other members of their team in initiating and facilitating interpersonal interactions among members (Waldman, Ramirez, House, & Puranam, 2001).
In effect, the risks of adverse selection due to the information asymmetries between acquirers and newly public acquisition targets increases the transaction costs associated with post-IPO acquisitions, and in turn, reduces the attractiveness of acquisition targets to potential acquirers (Milgrom & Stokey, 1982; Puranam, Powell, & Singh, 2006).
Innovation ecosystems are seen as a specific subset of alliances and networks (Gulati, Puranam, and Tushman, 2012); they have specific properties that distinguish them, for instance, their focus (Adner, 2017).
According to author Ashish Jaiswal, Vishudharmottaram Puranam, the not so well known ancient Indian text contains, the first ever, extensive measurements of the perfectly proportionate human body.
Moreover, this cooperation with vertical partners is predicated upon aligned interests between parties, facilitated by embeddedness and joint outcomes (Gulati, Lawrence, and Puranam 2005).
The studies of Waldman, Ramirez, House, and Puranam (2001) and Tosi, Misangyi, Fanelli, Waldman and Yammarino (2004), on the other hand, are not related to organizational performance.
According to Roscoe (1975) as cited in Tavana, Szabat, and Puranam (2016), he suggested that the minimum sample size should be 10 and in the range of 30 to 500 samples.
Puranam et al., "Synergistic effect of collagenase-1 (MMP1), stromelysin-1 (MMP3) and gelatinase-B (MMP9) gene polymorphisms in breast cancer," PLoS One, vol.
Entrepreneurial organizations that are acquired during the innovation process are best left in an autonomous state to encourage the exploration process (Puranam et al., 2006).