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(po͝orä`nə): see Sanskrit literatureSanskrit literature,
literary works written in Sanskrit constituting the main body of the classical literature of India. Introduction

The literature is divided into two main periods—the Vedic (c.1500–c.200 B.C.
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canonical texts of Hinduism.

The oldest puranas date from the middle of the first millennium B.C., but the basic texts that have come down to us appeared chiefly in the second half of the first millennium. The most valuable, by literary and historical considerations, are the Markandeya Purana, Vayu Purana, Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana, and Matsya Purana. Depending on which god the purana is dedicated to, there are Vishnuite, Saiva, and Brahmanic puranas, but, as a whole, they express the basic religious, social, and ethical principles of Hinduism.

In content and form, the puranas resemble ancient Indian epic poetry. They present cosmogonic legends, myths about the origins of all creatures, and the genealogy of the gods, divine sages, and legendary dynasties. The ethical and metaphysical ideas of the puranas influenced most of the philosophers of medieval India. Poets and dramatists also used the myths of the puranas in their works. The Bhagavata Purana, in which the cult of ecstatic love for god (bhakti) is preached and legends about the life of Krishna are retold, has especially influenced religious and literary traditions in the modern Indian languages.


Bhagavata Purana, vols. 1–5. Translated and published by E. Burnouf et al. Paris, 1840–98.
Vayu Purana, vols. 1–2. Calcutta, 1880–88.
Matsya Purana. Poona, 1907.
Markandeya Purana. Bombay, 1924.
Vishnu-Purana, vols. 1–5, 3rd ed. Translated by H. H. Wilson. Calcutta, 1972.
In Russian translation:
Lallu Ji Lal. Prem Sagar. Translated from Hindi with introduction and notes by A. P. Barannikov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.


Wilson, H. H. Puranas or an Account of Their Contents and Nature. Calcutta, 1911.
Pusalker, A. D. Studies in the Epics and Puranas. Bombay, 1955.
An Anthology of the Epics and Puranas. Edited by S. K. De and R. C. Hazra. New Delhi, 1959.


References in periodicals archive ?
In no sense does the index relating individual patikams to Cekkilar's hagiographical narrative exhaust the dense field of connections between the Periya Puranam and the Tevaram poems.
Shulman devotes a good deal of his attention to the Tamil story of Ciruttontar from Cekkilar's Periva Puranam (mid-12th century C.
Elizabeth Puranam, a current student of Arabic, commented: "I've really enjoyed learning a new language, in my case Arabic, at TII.
Kaisika Puranam, Bhattar Vyakhyanathudan, Nanguneri: published by
In the latter category are by now famous examples of GE's Indian unit designing stripped-down EKG and ultrasound medical devices (Kumar and Puranam 2012) and hospitals like Narayana Hrudalaya which apply industrial engineering techniques to hospital management whereby they are more than 250 % as efficient as American or European hospitals--not just in financial indicators such as cost per surgery, but also in non-financial productivity measures such as surgeries per doctor or annual patient throughput per square meter of space (Knowledge at Wharton 2010).
As a result, university TTOs often focus on legal mechanisms to protect IP and enable licensing; patents are the most common such mechanism (Reitzig and Puranam 2009).
More coordinating interactions are expected when the two groups perceive each other as an integral part of the project, thus reducing interferences among interdependent tasks (Srikanth & Puranam, 2011).
The prisoner's dilemma is a classic example of how actors behave in order to protect their self-interest (Gulati, Lawrence, and Puranam 1995).
Puranam, 2001, CEO Leadership and Organizational Performance: The Moderating Effect of Environmental Uncertainty, Academy of Management Journal, 44: 134-143.
Authors Kumar and Puranam, affiliated with the London Business School's Aditya Birla India Center, ask whether India can become a locus of innovation, drawing on interviews with CEOs, scientists, and policy makers, as well as analysis of 30 years of Indian patent data.
Some scholars have provided support for the notion that an acquired firm may require a degree of autonomy to facilitate a period of learning in which the acquiring firm and the acquired firm begin to learn from each other and eventually combine or transfer organizational resources (Haspeslagh and Jemison, 1991; Puranam et al.
1993; Hoye, 2004; Waldman, Ramirez, House, & Puranam, 2001), but the contribution of an organization's board often accounts for the difference between financial success and failure (Duca, 1986).