PPP

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Related to Purchasing power parity: Relative purchasing power parity

PPP

(communications)

PPP

PPP

(Point-to-Point Protocol) The most popular method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the ISP. Developed in 1994 by the IETF and superseding the SLIP protocol, PPP establishes the session between the user's computer and the ISP using its own Link Control Protocol (LCP). PPP supports PAP and CHAP authentication, as well as EAP, which is a conduit for numerous other authentication methods (see PAP, CHAP and EAP).

Full-Duplex and Multilink
PPP can run on any full-duplex link from POTS to ISDN to T1, etc. On dial-up connections, PPP can hang up a low-quality call and redial. Using Multilink PPP (MLPPP), two modems and phone lines can be bonded together to increase speed.

PPP Encapsulates the Packets
PPP encapsulates high-level protocol packets in HDLC-based frames; for example, IP over PPP (IPCP) for the Internet and IPX over PPP (IPXCP) for NetWare networks, and it can multiplex different protocols over the same circuit. PPP also supports ATM and Ethernet frames for DSL and cable modem hookups (see PPPoA and PPPoE). See PPTP and SLIP.


PPP and L2TP Together
PPP and its counterpart, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), are used together to extend a PPP session across the Internet for remote users.







The PPP Stack
PPP resides at the data link layer in the stack. Its typical use is accessing the Internet via TCP/IP over an analog modem (RS-232), ISDN or a T1 line. However, PPP can also simultaneously multiplex other transport protocols such as IPX, Appletalk and DECnet.
References in periodicals archive ?
2001), Nonlinear mean-reversion in real exchange rates: Towards a solution to the purchasing power parity puzzles, International Economic Review, 42, 1015-1042.
Razzaghipur, Alipasha, Fleming, Grant & Heanly, Richard (2001) Deviation and Mean Reversion to Purchasing Power Parity in the Asian Currency Crisis of 1997.
Instead, the dollar could return to purchasing power parity if prices in the United States rise faster than prices abroad.
Labor Productivity at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): GDP (PPP) per employee per hour, in US$.
Purchasing power parity theory of exchange rate determination asserts that the exchange rate between two currencies over any period of time is determined by the changes in the two countries price levels.
Shiokawa hinted at a House of Councillors Budget Committee session that he favors a weaker yen, saying the dollar-yen exchange rate should reflect the purchasing power parity of Japan and the United States.
There are feedback mechanisms limiting this influence, however, which can be set out by analysing the implications of the uncovered interest parity condition for any departure of the exchange rate from its purchasing power parity value as a result of a temporary policy-induced change in the domestic interest rate.
Following Grauwe and Verfaille, the paper first calculates purchasing power parity rates and corrects them for productivity differences, with the average over 1976-95 as constituting the equilibrium value ["Exchange Rate Variability, Misalignment, and the EMS," in Marston, ed.
They are interest rates, asset prices and purchasing power parity, the relative cost of everything from Big Macs to new clothes.
In other words, the figures presented are not adjusted for purchasing power parity.
A regression analysis was performed in which it was hypothesized that the economists' consensus was determined by three factors: the six-month moving average of the exchange rate, the previous whole year's average value of the exchange rate, and the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of the exchange rate.