PPP

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Related to Purchasing power parity: Relative purchasing power parity

PPP

(communications)

PPP

PPP

(Point-to-Point Protocol) The most popular method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the ISP. Developed in 1994 by the IETF and superseding the SLIP protocol, PPP establishes the session between the user's computer and the ISP using its own Link Control Protocol (LCP). PPP supports PAP and CHAP authentication, as well as EAP, which is a conduit for numerous other authentication methods (see PAP, CHAP and EAP).

Any Full-Duplex Link
PPP can run on any full-duplex link from POTS to ISDN to T1, etc. On dial-up connections, PPP can hang up a low-quality call and redial. Using Multilink PPP (MPPP), two modems and phone lines can be bonded together to increase speed.

PPP Encapsulates the Packets
PPP encapsulates high-level protocol packets in HDLC-based frames; for example, IP over PPP (IPCP) for the Internet and IPX over PPP (IPXCP) for NetWare networks, and it can multiplex different protocols over the same circuit. PPP also supports ATM and Ethernet frames for DSL and cable modem hookups (see PPPoA and PPPoE). See PPTP and SLIP.


PPP and L2TP Together
PPP and its counterpart, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), are used together to extend a PPP session across the Internet for remote users.








The PPP Stack
PPP resides at the data link layer in the stack. Its typical use is accessing the Internet via TCP/IP over an analog modem (RS-232), ISDN or a T1 line. However, PPP can also simultaneously multiplex other transport protocols such as IPX, Appletalk and DECnet.
References in periodicals archive ?
2001), Nonlinear mean-reversion in real exchange rates: Towards a solution to the purchasing power parity puzzles, International Economic Review, 42, 1015-1042.
Smithin, John (2002/2003) Interest Parity, Purchasing Power Parity, 'Risk Premia' and Keynesian Economic Analysis.
These outcome variables include Compensation Levels, Foreign Direct Investment Inflows (Log), Gross Domestic Product per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity, Gross Domestic Product per Capita, Labour Productivity at Purchasing Power Parity, Labour Productivity, Overall Productivity Growth, Overall Productivity, and Real Gross Domestic Product Growth.
The purchasing power parity theory serve as equilibrium condition in the theory of exchange rate determination and in exchange rate policy.
Denote the purchasing power parity exchange rate as e.
This concept will be tested for the Canadian dollar by seeing whether adding information about the purchasing power parity value of the exchange rate can improve forecasts.
Sustained high growth since economic reforms and liberalisation introduced in the early 1990s has put India as the fourth largest economy in the world, behind the EU, US, China and Japan, on Purchasing Power Parity," he added.
As Turkey amended its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) figures based on Purchasing Power Parity, national income per capita increased to 15,292 USD from 13,088 USD.
Summary: <p>The annual survey on the gross national income (GNI) per capita conducted by the World Bank in 210 countries ranked Lebanon 94th worldwide in terms of GNI per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) and 6th among MENA 13 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) in 2008, as reported by Byblos bank's Lebanon This week.
The most well established theories of exchange rate determination are Purchasing Power Parity and Interest Rate Parity.
There are economists who believe as a matter of principle that purchasing power parity must hold, even in the short-run, despite ample convincing empirical evidence to contrary (as with monetary growth and inflation).