PPP

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Related to Purchasing power parity: Relative purchasing power parity

PPP

(communications)

PPP

PPP

(Point-to-Point Protocol) The most popular method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the ISP. Developed in 1994 by the IETF and superseding the SLIP protocol, PPP establishes the session between the user's computer and the ISP using its own Link Control Protocol (LCP). PPP supports PAP and CHAP authentication, as well as EAP, which is a conduit for numerous other authentication methods (see PAP, CHAP and EAP).

Full-Duplex and Multilink
PPP can run on any full-duplex link from POTS to ISDN to T1, etc. On dial-up connections, PPP can hang up a low-quality call and redial. Using Multilink PPP (MLPPP), two modems and phone lines can be bonded together to increase speed.

PPP Encapsulates the Packets
PPP encapsulates high-level protocol packets in HDLC-based frames; for example, IP over PPP (IPCP) for the Internet and IPX over PPP (IPXCP) for NetWare networks, and it can multiplex different protocols over the same circuit. PPP also supports ATM and Ethernet frames for DSL and cable modem hookups (see PPPoA and PPPoE). See PPTP and SLIP.


PPP and L2TP Together
PPP and its counterpart, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), are used together to extend a PPP session across the Internet for remote users.







The PPP Stack
PPP resides at the data link layer in the stack. Its typical use is accessing the Internet via TCP/IP over an analog modem (RS-232), ISDN or a T1 line. However, PPP can also simultaneously multiplex other transport protocols such as IPX, Appletalk and DECnet.
References in periodicals archive ?
The value of the dollar will be explained by its own past value n periods before and the value of the purchasing power parity index n periods before.
The flexible price monetary model assumes continuous absolute purchasing power parity, uncovered interest rate parity, perfect asset substitution, equilibrium in the goods, labor, and foreign exchange markets.
(1978) Purchasing Power Parity under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates.
64-71) examined purchasing power parity between Australia and Britain in describing the relationship between exchanges and the balance of trade.
"Co-integration as an empirical Test of Purchasing Power Parity," Journal of Macroeconomics, 12, Winter, pp.
(1978) Purchasing Power Parity: Doctrinal Perspectives and Evidence from the 1920s.
Russias purchasing power parity per capita of US$9,200 reflects a consumer base in which the average household has a small but growing margin for discretionary spending.
The subject of the contract to the extent and in accordance with the specification is to provide statistical data in the framework of the international project purchasing power parity (Purchasing Power Parities - PPP) in the field of construction.
ANKARA, Jul 21, 2009 (TUR) -- Turkey was ranked the 25th among 37 European countries last year in terms of purchasing power parity and prices of consumption goods and services.
Indonesias purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is symptomatic of a nation where the average household can purchase little more than the essentials.
Bolivias purchasing power parity per capita is symptomatic of a nation with very little leeway for savings and investment.
Ghana's purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita of less than US$2,000 reflects the depth of poverty that prevails at the household level.