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type of organic base found in the nucleotidesnucleotide
, organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of either a purine or a pyrimidine base, a ribose or deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions.
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 and nucleic acidsnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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 of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent. The two major purines of almost universal distribution in living systems are adenineadenine
, organic base of the purine family. Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine
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 and guanineguanine
, organic base of the purine family. It was reported (1846) to be in the guano of birds; later (1879–84) it was established as one of the major constituents of nucleic acids.
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A heterocyclic organic compound ( 1 ) containing

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fused pyrimidine and imidazole rings. A number of substituted purine derivatives occur in nature; some, as components of nucleic acids and coenzymes, play vital roles in the genetic and metabolic processes of all living organisms. See Coenzyme, Nucleic acid

Purines are generally white solids of amphoteric character. They can form salts with both acids and bases. Conjugated double bonds in purines results in aromatic chemical properties, that confers considerable stability, and accounts for their strong ultraviolet absorption spectra. With the exception of the parent compound, most substituted purines have low solubilities in water and organic solvents.

The purine bases, adenine ( 2 ) and guanine ( 3 ),

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together with pyrimidines, are fundamental components of all nucleic acids. Certain methylated derivatives of adenine and guanine are also present in some nucleic acids in low amounts. In biological systems, hypoxanthine ( 4 ),
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adenine, and guanine occur mainly as their 9-glycosides, the sugar being either ribose or 2-deoxyribose. Such compounds are termed nucleosides generically, and inosine (hypoxanthine nucleoside), adenosine, or guanosine specifically. The principal nucleotides contain 5-phosphate groups, as in guanosine 5-phosphate (GTP) and adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP).

Most living organisms are capable of synthesizing purine compounds. The sequence of enzymatic reactions by which the initial purine product, inosine 5-phosphate, is formed utilizes glycine, carbon dioxide, formic acid, and amino groups derived from glutamine and aspartic acid. Adenosine 5-phosphate and guanosine 5-phosphate are formed from inosine 5-phosphate.

Metabolic degradation of purine derivatives may also occur by hydrolysis of nucleotides and nucleosides to the related free bases. Deamination of adenine and guanine produces hypoxanthine and xanthine ( 5 ), both of which may be oxidized to uric acid ( 6 ).

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See Uric acid

Purine-related compounds have been investigated as potential chemotherapeutic agents. In particular, 6-mercaptopurine, in the form of its nucleoside phosphate, inhibits several enzymes required for synthesis of adenosine and guanosine nucleotides, and thus proves useful in selectively arresting the growth of tumors. The pyrazolopyrimidine has been used in gout therapy. As a purine analog, this agent serves to block the biosynthesis of inosine phosphate, as well as the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. As a result of its use, overproduction of uric acid is prevented and the primary cause of gout is removed. See Chemotherapy, Pyrimidine

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A heterocyclic compound containing fused pyrimidine and imidazole rings; adenine and guanine are the purine components of nucleic acids and coenzymes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Key genes were determined by real-time PCR, and punA, IMP dehydrogenase, and GMP synthase genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis were found upregulated 16.56-fold, 8-fold, and 5.43-fold, respectively.
(a) Upregulated genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis.
Moreover, correlations of serum levels of Coenzyme [Q.sub.10] and vitamin E isomers (particularly with [gamma]-tocopherol) in MS patients show that Co[Q.sub.10] is involved to the mechanisms that lead to alteration in the purine nucleotides metabolism, as well as in the processes of regeneration of vitamin E (Figure 2).
Mechanism of [gamma]T influence on the metabolism of purine nucleotides is not yet known.
The results of the work show that patients with multiple sclerosis in the early stage of the disease are characterized by reduced antioxidant, immunoregulatory, and neuroprotective ability, which are reflected by the increased metabolism of purine nucleotides, reduced CSF adenosine levels, low serum levels of lipophilic antioxidants [gamma]-tocopherol, [beta]-carotene, Co[Q.sub.10], and elevated levels of serum TBARS.
Out of the measured antioxidants, [gamma]-tocopherol correlated the most with CSF levels of purine nucleotide degradation products (Figure 3).
Purine Nucleotide Degradation Depending on the Serum Lipophilic Antioxidants Concentrations.