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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city (since 1966) in Serpukhov Raion, Moscow Oblast, RSFSR; standing on the right bank of the Oka River. Pushchino is located 13 km below Serpukhov, with which it is connected by a highway.

The Radio Astronomical Observatory of the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was built in the city in 1957. The Scientific Center for Biological Research of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was organized in Pushchino in 1963. The center makes extensive use of the latest methods of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and computer technology. It has institutes for the study of agricultural chemistry and soil science, proteins, biophysics, the biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms, and photosynthesis. The center also includes the research computer center of the special design office for biological instruments and a branch of the biology department of Moscow State University. It has a scientific and technical information section and a central library.

Research at the center is focused mainly on the structure of biopolymers (proteins and nucleic acids), the role of biopoly-mers in living systems, the structure and functions of supra-molecular complexes and subcellular structures (biological membranes in particular), the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis, and the molecular basis of the mobility and irritability of biological structures. Also studied are the primary effects of ionizing radiation on living systems, molecular genetics, and the metabolism of microorganisms in relation to their synthesis of biologically active compounds and transformation of organic compounds. In addition, the center is engaged in a mul-tidisciplinary study of photosynthesis. Research is being conducted in experimental soil science, agricultural chemistry, modeling of soil processes, and biosphere problems.

The purpose of the research is not only to solve theoretical problems of modern biology but also to benefit the microbiological industry, agriculture, and clinical medicine. The Division of the Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Chemistry of Physiologically Active Compounds of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR directs the scientific activities of the center.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Female BALB/c mice (10-14 weeks old) were obtained from the Pushchino Animal Breeding Centre (Russia) for this study.
(2) Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia
Calorimetric measurements were performed using high-sensitivity differential adiabatic scanning microcalorimeter DASM-4 (Biopribor, Pushchino, Russia), with a sensitivity >0.017 mJ x [K.sup.-1] and a noise level < [+ or -]0.05 [micro]W.
Thirty-three Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g each; Pushchino Laboratory, Russia) were used for SCI in the present study.
(3) Institute of Cell Biophysics RAS, Pushchino, Russia
In first case the luminescence microscope was combined with the registration system in microspectrofluorimeter MSF-1 [8, 9] made by the Institute of Biological Techniques, Pushchino. The excitation of the emission was by light 360-380 nm.
For karyological analysis, we used young leaves of one clone from native stand ("Meshabash" clone) and, as a control, roots and young leaves of ramets of three elite clones obtained from Forest Biotechnology Lab collection of the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Pushchino, Russia): PtV22, Line#4, Understory-3.
Twenty-nine adult male and female Wistar rats (weight, 250-300 g each; Pushchino Laboratory, Russia) were group-housed in clear plastic cages (12 h: 12 h light/dark cycle) with food and water available ad libitum.
(2) Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia
[4.] Computer processing of geobotanical descriptions according to the ecological scales with the aid of the EcoScaleWin program (2008) Yoshkar-Ola, Mari State University, Pushchino State University, 96 p.
Khokhlova (Institute of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Problems of Soil Science, the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia), microbiomorphic and palynological analyses--A.