Similar pyrgeometer measurements were made from the tethered balloon (Fig.
16a and 16c), measured by aircraft pyrgeometers near the sea ice edge, and derived heating rates (Figs.
Parameters Instrument Manufacturer (mentor) Broadband SW Pyranometer Kipp & Zonen, radiative flux, modified CM22 (NRL upwelling and BBR suite) downwelling Broadband LW Pyrgeometer
Kipp & Zonen, radiative flux, modified CG4 (NRL upwelling and BBR) downwelling Global, direct, and Sunshine pyranometer Delta-T Devices SPN- diffuse SW radiative I (NRL BBR) flux, downwelling Spectral SW radiance, 4STAR (NASA Ames Research downwelling Center) Spectral SW SSFR (University of irradiance, upwelling Colorado Boulder) and downwelling Cloud and surface Pyrometer Heitronics KT-19.85 temperature, up- and series II (NSERC and downlooking NRL) Surface topography, LVIS (NASA GSFC) vertical extent and structure IWC, LWC WCM-2000 SEA, Inc.
The 95% response time for the pyranometers and pyrgeometers
is about 18 seconds.
At the Intercomparison, pyranometers, pyrgeometers
, UVB radiometers, shadowband radiometers and a total sky imager (TSI) were located on the platform.
The meteorological towers carried a total of 195 three-component sonic anemometers, 55 temperature-humidity sensors, 22 barometers, 8 microbarometers, 14 radiometers, 17 C[O.sub.2]/[H.sub.2]O gas analyzers, 13 wetness sensors, 16 heat/moisture flux sensors, 5 thermohygrometers, and 3 pyrgeometers
. The instruments were mounted at heights 2,10,20,30,40,60,80, and 100 m above ground level (AGL), depending on instrument availability and science needs.
This means that in this position, the two pyranometers and two pyrgeometers
measured [K.sub.i] and [L.sub.i] separately from the upper and lower hemisphere (Ku, [K.sub.d], [L.sub.u], [L.sub.d]).
On the other hand, the pyrgeometers
used for longwave radiation measure radiant heat fluxes in the far infrared spectrum (5-50 [micro]m).
At these sites, the longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes were measured by pyrgeometers
(CG3 radiometers with spectral range 5-50 [micro]m, by Kipp and Zonen) and pyranometers (CM3 radiometers, by Kipp and Zonen), respectively.
Unfortunately, the longwave (LW) pyrgeometers
deployed were too slow for UAS applications (18 s, 95%), demonstrating a need for the development of faster-response LW instrumentation.
Pyranometers, measuring in- and outgoing shortwave radiation and diffuse radiation, and pyrgeometers
, measuring ingoing and outgoing longwave radiation, were mounted on a sawhorse-type structure (Fig.
Germany (Mar Doppler radar spectrum at low power (50 2012) 24.1 GHz mW), sensitivity >-5 dBZ at 300-m range Parsivel Optical Attenuation Time and degree disdrometer by disdrometer of a diode- of attenuation gives OTT, Germany maintained information on fall (Apr 2013) "light sheet" velocity and size of during passage particle of a falling particle Shortwave Pyranometer, See Pyranometer: high and longwave pyrheliometer, atmospheric quality, secondary radiation and variables standards, sun sensors by pyrgeometers
tracker blocks Kipp and direct sunlight Zonen, Netherlands Oan 2011) Sun photometer Multichannel Spectral AERONET by CIMEL radiometer radiance at instrument.