Pyrrho of Elis
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Pyrrho of Elis
Born circa 360 B.C.; died circa 270 B.C. Greek philosopher; founder of skepticism (Pyrrhonism).
Pyrrho did not leave any writings. His views are known only through the notes of his pupils, especially Timon of Phlius, and through the account of Eusebius, who formulated Timon’s three basic questions: What is the nature of things? In what relation should we stand to things around us? and What should be the result of this relationship? Timon and Pyrrho answered the first question with the assertion that we know absolutely nothing about anything. To the second question they replied that we should abstain from making any judgment about things around us, since our judgments are purely subjective. In response to the third question, they declared that one must experience complete spiritual independence from all of one’s surroundings (imperturbability, ataraxy, and even complete impassivity, or apathy).
Aenesidemus was a follower of Pyrrhonism. The doctrine reached its peak under Sextus Empiricus in the second century A.D.
REFERENCESRichter, R. Skeptitsizm ν filosofii, vol. 1. St. Petersburg, 1910. Pages 60–75. (Translated from German.)
MacColl, N. The Greek Sceptics From Pyrrho to Sextus. London, 1869.
Waddington, C. Pyrrhon et el Pyrrhonisme. Paris, 1877.
Pappenheim, E. Die Troppen der griehischen Skeptiker. Berlin, 1885.
Caldi, G. Le scetticismo critico della scuola Pirroniana. Udine, 1896.
Robin, L. Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec. Paris, 1944.
A. F. LOSEV