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Related to Pyrrophyta: phylum Pyrrophyta, Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta



a phylum of lower plants (algae). The plants are microscopic and usually mobile (with two or, less frequently, one flagellum in one or two intersecting grooves). They may be unicellular, colonial, or less frequently, filamentous. The majority are either naked or have a casing in the form of a carapace of two halves, formed of angular plates. The brown chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and brown pigments. The storage product is starch or, less commonly, oil. The nucleus is primitive. Some species have a pigment spot, a contractile vacuole, and, sometimes, a cytopharynx.

The Pyrrophyta include autotrophs and heterotrophs with a saprophytic, parasitic, or holozoic type of nutrition. Some are symbionts of coelenterates and radiolarians. Mobile species reproduce by division; nonmobile forms multiply by spores and zoospores. Sexual reproduction, or isogamy, is rarely observed.

Pyrrophyta live in freshwaters and seas. They serve as food for invertebrates and sometimes cause water bloom and the destruction of fish.

The phylum has two subphyla, Cryptophytina and Dinophytina, which zoologists assign to the order Dinoflagellata. There are approximately 125 genera, including more than 1,000 species. The USSR has about 50 genera, embracing 500 species. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the plants are often considered as two phyla: Cryptophyta and Dinophyta.


Kiselev, I. A. Pirofitovye vodorosli. Moscow, 1954. (Opredelitel’ presnowdnykh vodoroslei SSSR, issue 6.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Aunque las Chlorophytas presentaron la mayor riqueza especifica la division Cyanophyta fue la mas abundante con 5095 ind/L (63%), especialmente de tipos filamentosas o delgadas, seguida de las divisiones Chlorophyta con 1697 ind/L (21%), Heterokonthophyta con 1124 ind/L(14%), Euglenophyta 143 ind/L(l,77%), Xanthophyta con 19 ind/L y Pyrrophyta con 3 ind/L (22%; Figura 3).
La division Heterokonthophyta fue la mas abundante en este muestreo con 529 ind/L (61%) seguida de Cyanophyta con 159 ind/L (18,6%), Chlorophyta con 154 ind/L (18%), Pyrrophyta con 17 ind/L (2%), Xanthophyta con 2 ind/L y Euglenophyta con 1 ind/L.
Se reportaron 2476 ind/L en la zona litoral, donde la division con mayor numero de individuos fue Cyanophyta con 1757 ind/L (70,96%), seguida de Chlorophyta con 298 ind/L(12,04%), Heterokonthophyta con 277 ind/L (11,19%), Euglenophyta con 76 ind/L (3,07%), Pyrrophyta con 56 ind/L (2,26%) y Xanthophyta con 12 ind/L (0,48%).
Pyrrophyta (dinoflagellates) was typically associated with the fish additions at both depths.
Chlorophyta as well as Pyrrophyta appear to increase in the presence of fish in most studies.
Temporal variation of Cryptophyta, Bacillariophyta and Pyrrophyta at the surface of Lake Bonilla (2010-2011).
However, Cyanobacteria and Pyrrophyta negatively affect water quality by producing compounds that are toxic to some aquatic animals (Ju et al., 2008).
(2010), with the onset of eutrophication of water bodies, the Bacillariophyta population decreases and Cyanobacteria and Pyrrophyta persist.
Small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequence analysis and a reconstruction of the inferred phylogeny among symbiotic dinoflagellates (Pyrrophyta).
A novel technique for preparation of axenic cultures of Symbiodinium (Pyrrophyta) through selective digestion by amoebae.
punctata (Meyen, 1839) y Chroococcus turgidas (Naegeli, 1849) y Pyrrophyta (Gymnodinium sp.
En la epoca de secas los grupos Pyrrophyta, Cianobacteria y Chlorophyta son frecuentes, mientras que durante la epoca de nortes el grupo Cianobacteria es relativamente abundante (Fig.