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a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes, the largest of which are the Dareshuri, Shishbuluki, Kashkuli, Amaleh, and Farsimadan, living in the Fars region of Iran. They number more than 350, 000 (1970, estimate) and are Muslims. About half the Qashqai are nomads, the rest having adopted a settled way of life. The chief occupation of the nomadic Qashqai is livestock breeding; some agriculture is also practiced, and carpet weaving is well developed. The settled Qashqai are primarily farmers. Feudal relations with vestiges of the patriarchal clan system and tribal organization survive among the Qashqai. Until the mid-20th century the Qashqai tribal confederation was headed by a hereditary ilkhani, and the tribes and tribal subdivisions were ruled by kalantars and katkhoda, who were subject to the ilkhani. The Qashqai are developing into a single nationality.