Ch'ien-lung

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Ch'ien-lung

(chyĕn`-lo͞ong`), 1711–99, reign title of the fourth emperor (1735–96) of the Ch'ing dynasty, whose given name was Hung-li. Under his vigorous military policy, China attained its maximum territorial expanse; XinjiangXinjiang
or Sinkiang
[Chinese,=new frontier], officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Mandarin Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu), autonomous region (2010 pop. 21,813,334), c.637,000 sq mi (1,650,257 sq km), NW China.
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 in the west was conquered, and Myanmar and Annam in the south were forced to recognize Chinese suzerainty. He restricted Western merchants to Guangzhou (Canton) in 1759, and he rejected British overtures for expanded trade and diplomatic ties in 1793. Ch'ien-lung was a patron of scholarship and the arts; some of China's finest porcelain and cloisonné were produced for his collections, and vast anthologies were edited, partly to censor seditious references to the Manchus. Despite the surface splendor of cultural achievement and imperial expansion, his reign in later years was characterized by growing official corruption, loss of military efficiency, and fiscal imbalance.

Bibliography

See S. A. Hedin, Jehol: City of the Emperors (1932); L. C. Goodrich, The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien Lung (1935); E. H. Pritchard, The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750–1800 (1936); H. L. Kahn, Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes (1971).

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In The Book and the Sword, Master Yu, Chen's mentor, breaks into the Forbidden City, meets with the Emperor Qianlong for two hours, reveals the secret that the Emperor Qianlong is Chinese, and urges Qianlong to overthrow the Manchus and restore the throne of China to the Chinese while remaining as emperor himself (2004: 85, 231).
Trinity mouth Township is located in plain, beautiful scenery and pleasant climate, forest coverage rate reached 63%, within the reign of Emperor Qianlong of ancient ruins, centuries guhuai, pollution-free fruits, vegetables, etc.
Last but not least is Lot 429, a Fine Chinese Qing Period Cloisonne Censer marked with a Qianlong Mark on base.
A number of sophisticated buyers satisfied themselves that it was from the Qianlong period, hence they bid as strongly as they did.
In October that year, Emperor Qianlong threw a lavish banquet in Chengde Imperial Summer Resort for the noblemen of four clans of the Velatic Mongolians and also decided to build the Puning Temple which resembles the Samye Temple in Tibet.
After deliberating for two hours, Judge Seys Llewellyn QC, sitting at Mold county court, concluded that Mrs Galloway had never surrendered her ownership of the vase and had been the Qianlong vase's rightful owner when it was sold.
Another superb vase - a Famille-Rose "Peach" Vase with Tianqiuping Seal Mark of the Qianlong Period - made pounds 7.
And a small wooden carving stored in the same box went for 380,000 pound as it was proved to once belong to Chinese emperor Qianlong 240 years ago.
The most-prized bottle - a mid-18th century porcelain "moon flask" commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor - is expected to fetch pounds 250,000.
It was probably made by gifted Chinese artists working in the Forbidden City during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735-96) and this shows you the perfection of Qianlong manufacture by men who once possessed technical skills that we have long lost from the world today.
1662-1722), Yongzheng (1723-35), and Qianlong (1736-95).
Auction house Sotheby's sold a hexagonal vase commissioned by Qing Emperor Qianlong in 1743, for HK$19 million, to a dealer backed by the Beijing municipal government.