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(chyĕn`-lo͞ong`), 1711–99, reign title of the fourth emperor (1735–96) of the Ch'ing dynasty, whose given name was Hung-li. Under his vigorous military policy, China attained its maximum territorial expanse; XinjiangXinjiang
or Sinkiang
[Chinese,=new frontier], officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Mandarin Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu), autonomous region (2010 pop. 21,813,334), c.637,000 sq mi (1,650,257 sq km), NW China.
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 in the west was conquered, and Myanmar and Annam in the south were forced to recognize Chinese suzerainty. He restricted Western merchants to Guangzhou (Canton) in 1759, and he rejected British overtures for expanded trade and diplomatic ties in 1793. Ch'ien-lung was a patron of scholarship and the arts; some of China's finest porcelain and cloisonné were produced for his collections, and vast anthologies were edited, partly to censor seditious references to the Manchus. Despite the surface splendor of cultural achievement and imperial expansion, his reign in later years was characterized by growing official corruption, loss of military efficiency, and fiscal imbalance.


See S. A. Hedin, Jehol: City of the Emperors (1932); L. C. Goodrich, The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien Lung (1935); E. H. Pritchard, The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750–1800 (1936); H. L. Kahn, Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes (1971).

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Nonetheless, while the overall discussion of the Qianlong portrait in "Silk and Skin" is full of literary charm, its analysis turns out to be based on several fundamental errors both of fact and interpretation, as a consequence of which the formal, iconographic, and historical sources of the portrait are seriously misrepresented.
Whereas most previous scholarship has seen the Qianlong emperor's decision to elevate the Shaanxi-born Wang Jie over the Zhejiang-educated Zhao Yi as an attempt at affirmative action in order to bring representation to the academically weaker northwest, Man-Cheong reads the incident more as a contest of wills between the emperor and his increasingly autonomous body of privy advisors, the Grand Council.
He charts the changes in the content, form, and execution of policy towards Khoqand that characterized the transition from the Qianlong era, 1736-95, to subsequent ages, and how the diminishing expertise on Central Asia among Qing officials affected the management of the frontier region of southern Xinjiang and eventually led the central government to pull in the northwestern border from where it had stood earlier.
1719-1793), a Jesuit serving at the court of the Qianlong emperor.
Tianning Temple was associated with the imperial salt monopoly and later with the imperial tourism of the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' southern tours.
The eight-gram lychee came from a 400-year-old tree in the city of Zengcheng that became famous during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) for bearing lychees used as tributes to the courts of Emperors Qianlong and Jiaqing, the report said.
Within weeks of acceding to his father's throne in 1735 the Qianlong emperor ordered him to be re-arrested, together with his family and dependants.
The early to mid Qing period under the reigns of the emperors Kangxi (1662-1722), Yongzheng (1722-35) and Qianlong (1735-96) was a time of extraordinary technical experimentation and innovation at the Jingdezhen kilns, which resulted in a proliferation of new glazes and enamelling techniques--and ever more complex and laborious processes.
After deliberating for two hours, Judge Seys Llewellyn QC, sitting at Mold county court, concluded that Mrs Galloway had never surrendered her ownership of the vase and had been the Qianlong vase's rightful owner when it was sold.
Another superb vase - a Famille-Rose "Peach" Vase with Tianqiuping Seal Mark of the Qianlong Period - made pounds 7.
And a small wooden carving stored in the same box went for 380,000 pound as it was proved to once belong to Chinese emperor Qianlong 240 years ago.