Ch'ien-lung

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Ch'ien-lung

(chyĕn`-lo͞ong`), 1711–99, reign title of the fourth emperor (1735–96) of the Ch'ing dynasty, whose given name was Hung-li. Under his vigorous military policy, China attained its maximum territorial expanse; XinjiangXinjiang
or Sinkiang
[Chinese,=new frontier], officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Mandarin Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu), autonomous region (2010 pop. 21,813,334), c.637,000 sq mi (1,650,257 sq km), NW China.
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 in the west was conquered, and Myanmar and Annam in the south were forced to recognize Chinese suzerainty. He restricted Western merchants to Guangzhou (Canton) in 1759, and he rejected British overtures for expanded trade and diplomatic ties in 1793. Ch'ien-lung was a patron of scholarship and the arts; some of China's finest porcelain and cloisonné were produced for his collections, and vast anthologies were edited, partly to censor seditious references to the Manchus. Despite the surface splendor of cultural achievement and imperial expansion, his reign in later years was characterized by growing official corruption, loss of military efficiency, and fiscal imbalance.

Bibliography

See S. A. Hedin, Jehol: City of the Emperors (1932); L. C. Goodrich, The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien Lung (1935); E. H. Pritchard, The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750–1800 (1936); H. L. Kahn, Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes (1971).

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In the case examined here, the tone was set and structured by the Qianlong emperor, as well as perpetuated by the Grand Council and favored ministers such as Heshen and Fukang'an.
MING THE MONEY The plate, right, is believed to have belonged to Qianlong emperor, left
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A bidder from Beijing bought the 16in vase which was made in 1740 for the Qianlong Emperor - but in more recent years was being used as an umbrella stand.
The most-prized bottle - a mid-18th century porcelain "moon flask" commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor - is expected to fetch pounds 250,000.
The original 'Illustrated Odes to the Forty Scenes' was produced in 1745 by order of the Qianlong Emperor (1711-1799) to celebrate his major achievement, the development of the Yuan Ming Yuan or Garden of Perfect Brightness, just outside the Chinese capital.
She argues that after an ill-advised (or perhaps not advised at all) imperial effort to expand grain storage targets in the early 1740s, the Qianlong emperor retreated as he discovered the cost of the Jinchuan War, a conflict spurred by a rebellion in Tibetan territories annexed by the Qing after a war in the early 1720s.
Part 2, "Contending for Power," tells a dramatic story of protracted struggle between the Qing and Zunghar states, which started with Kangxi's campaigns against Galdan in 1690 and ended in 1759 when the Qianlong emperor announced the elimination of the Zunghars.
It was probably made by gifted Chinese artists working in the Forbidden City during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735-96) and this shows you the perfection of Qianlong manufacture by men who once possessed technical skills that we have long lost from the world today.
The empire collapsed in the 1760s, however, during the rule of the Qianlong emperor.
From the perspective of the Qianlong Emperor, promotion of the chastity cult was part of a larger Confucian attempt to transform customs through education (jiaohua, also jiaoyang).