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(chyĕn`-lo͞ong`), 1711–99, reign title of the fourth emperor (1735–96) of the Ch'ing dynasty, whose given name was Hung-li. Under his vigorous military policy, China attained its maximum territorial expanse; XinjiangXinjiang
or Sinkiang
[Chinese,=new frontier], officially Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Mandarin Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu), autonomous region (2010 pop. 21,813,334), c.637,000 sq mi (1,650,257 sq km), NW China.
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 in the west was conquered, and Myanmar and Annam in the south were forced to recognize Chinese suzerainty. He restricted Western merchants to Guangzhou (Canton) in 1759, and he rejected British overtures for expanded trade and diplomatic ties in 1793. Ch'ien-lung was a patron of scholarship and the arts; some of China's finest porcelain and cloisonné were produced for his collections, and vast anthologies were edited, partly to censor seditious references to the Manchus. Despite the surface splendor of cultural achievement and imperial expansion, his reign in later years was characterized by growing official corruption, loss of military efficiency, and fiscal imbalance.


See S. A. Hedin, Jehol: City of the Emperors (1932); L. C. Goodrich, The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien Lung (1935); E. H. Pritchard, The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750–1800 (1936); H. L. Kahn, Monarchy in the Emperor's Eyes (1971).

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MING THE MONEY The plate, right, is believed to have belonged to Qianlong emperor, left
Yellow jade was a favourite at the Qing court, and is believed to have been particularly admired by the Qianlong Emperor.
The original 'Illustrated Odes to the Forty Scenes' was produced in 1745 by order of the Qianlong Emperor (1711-1799) to celebrate his major achievement, the development of the Yuan Ming Yuan or Garden of Perfect Brightness, just outside the Chinese capital.
Part 2, "Contending for Power," tells a dramatic story of protracted struggle between the Qing and Zunghar states, which started with Kangxi's campaigns against Galdan in 1690 and ended in 1759 when the Qianlong emperor announced the elimination of the Zunghars.
It was probably made by gifted Chinese artists working in the Forbidden City during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735-96) and this shows you the perfection of Qianlong manufacture by men who once possessed technical skills that we have long lost from the world today.
From the perspective of the Qianlong Emperor, promotion of the chastity cult was part of a larger Confucian attempt to transform customs through education (jiaohua, also jiaoyang).
1719-1793), a Jesuit serving at the court of the Qianlong emperor.
This essay, written by a historian of religion who is interested in investigating "the relationship of signification and subjectivity in eighteenth-century China" (Zito 1994: 103), has at its core an analysis of a double portrait of Qing Gaozong, the Qianlong Emperor (r.
The celadon-glazed vase was made in the 18th century for the Qianlong Emperor, generally regarded as one of the greatest imperial collectors of the Qing dynasty.
The Qianlong Emperor (1735-96), another fervent Buddhist, was also a passionate collector of Tibetan bronzes.
RARE Qianlong enamelled glass snuff bottle from the imperial works REGAL Snuff bottle commissioned by the Qianlong emperor BEAUTY Jade bottle from Suzhou could be a star attraction at sale ORNATE Bottle from Peking dates to the 18th century CRAFTSMANSHIP This Qianlong bottle will be another coveted auction lot
The Qing used local authority figures when building their empire, but became more centralized and autocratic under the Qianlong emperor in the eighteenth century.