Ch'in

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Ch'in

(chĭn), dynasty of China, which ruled from 221 B.C. to 206 B.C. The word China is derived from Ch'in, the first dynasty to unify the country by conquering the warring feudal states of the late ChouChou
, dynasty of China, which ruled from c.1027 B.C. to 256 B.C. The pastoral Chou people migrated from the Wei valley NW of the Huang He c.1027 B.C. and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The Chou built their capital near modern Xi'an in 1027 B.C. and moved it to Luoyang in 770 B.C.
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 period. King Cheng took the title Shih Huang-ti or Shi Huangdi [first august emperor] in 221 B.C. and began to consolidate the new empire. In matters of state he was counseled by Li Ssu (d. 208 B.C.), a scholar of the Legalist school of philosophy, which emphasized the need for strict laws in social and political relations and for obedience to state authority. Under Shih Huang-ti, Ch'in extended the empire W to Guizhou, N to Gansu, and S to Tonkin in what is now Vietnam, and made the capital Xianyang (near modern Xi'an, Shaanxi prov.) the most splendid city of China; it is speculated that much of the Great WallGreat Wall of China,
series of fortifications, c.3,890 mi (6,260 km) long (not including trenches and natural defensive barriers), winding across N China from Gansu prov. to Liaoning prov.
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 was built during his reign. To govern the vast empire, Ch'in abolished feudalism, instituted a centralized government that was the model for later unifying dynasties, established uniform laws, weights, and measures, standardized the written language, and built a network of roads and canals that converged on the capital. Ch'in Shih Huang-ti has been regarded as a brutal autocrat by many since he is said to have imposed harsh laws, levied heavy taxes, tolerated no criticism, and burned all books except the useful ones on medicine and agriculture. Shih Huang-ti died in 210 B.C. and was succeeded by a weakling son. Overburdened peasants revolted and overthrew the Ch'in dynasty in 206 B.C. Soon after, the HanHan
, dynasty of China that ruled from 202 B.C. to A.D. 220. Liu Pang, the first Han emperor, had been a farmer, minor village official, and guerrilla fighter under the Ch'in dynasty.
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 dynasty came to power in China.

Bibliography

See D. Bodde, China's First Unifier (1938, repr. 1967); D. Twitchett and M. Loewe, ed., The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 1, 1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
It is here that questions of the authenticity and origins of the Qin documents acquired by the Yuelu Academy are addressed.
BYD will reportedly distribute the Qin in select European markets starting early next year, and could possibly make it available in the United States by late 2015.
Qin had a lead of 13- 10 at one point, but Sindhu won three points on the trot.
The King of Qin is the only character in the film who bears the vestige of a real historical figure: all other characters are fictional warriors without historical prototypes.
One, for instance, involves use of "air curtains" that would blow across the space to separate the figurines in the Qin museum from the outside environment.
Du and Qin face eight to 10 years in prison under sentencing guidelines, and Calabrese asked US District Judge Marianne Battani in a letter this week to "impose the maximum allowable sentence.
Qin has worked with patented technology in a variety of technical fields, with particular expertise in wireless communication and networking technologies.
Zakharov beat China's Qin on the way to glory at London 2012 but was not at his best this time.
ZhaoLin Gu and colleagues point out that environmental factors have deteriorated many of the more than 1,500 unearthed relics in China's Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses, for instance, and in other museums involving large open spaces.
China believes all parties concerned should address disputes through dialogue and consultation, Qin said, reiterating Beijing's readiness to resume six-party talks aimed at ending North Korea's nuclear ambitions as a means to ensuring peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and in East Asia.
We urge the US side to treat the issue of the Diaoyu islands with a responsible attitude," Qin said, referring to the territory by its Chinese name.
Evidently alluding to Japan, Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang said "the country concerned" has ignored the historical facts and international laws, openly violated the territorial sovereignty of other countries and openly denied the results of World War II, according to the official Xinhua News Agency.