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(chĭng`dou`) or


(tsĭng`tou`, chĭng`dou`), city (1994 est. pop. 1,584,100), SE Shandong prov., E China, on the Yellow Sea. With an excellent ice-free harbor, it is a major fishing and trade port of China, connected by rail with Yantai and Jinan. It is a special economic development port. The leading industrial city of Shandong, it has textile mills, food- and tobacco-processing plants, machine shops, breweries, paper mills, and plants making diesel locomotives, railroad cars, motor vehicles, tires, fertilizers, rubber products, and chemicals. The 16.6-mi (26.7-km) Jiaozhou Bay Bridge and 3.8-mi (6.2-km) Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay Tunnel connect Qingdao with Huangdao.

Leased to Germany in 1898 as part of the KiaochowKiaochow
or Jiaozhou
, former German territory, area c.200 sq mi (520 sq km), along the southern coast of Shandong prov., China. Its administrative center was the city of Qingdao. Germany leased Kiaochow in 1898 for 99 years, but in 1914 Japan seized it.
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 (Jiaozhou) territory, Qingdao became the administrative center of the leasehold and developed into a modern city. The Japanese held it from 1914 to 1922. Qingdao was a marine and naval base for the United States from 1945 to 1949, when it was abandoned and fell to the Communists. In the city are an astronomical observatory, two marine museums, Qingdao Technical Univ., a medical college, and several technical institutes. The city's name sometimes appears as Ch'ing-tao.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/


, Tsingtao, Chingtao
a port in E China, in E Shandong province on Jiazhou Bay, developed as a naval base and fort in 1891. Shandong university (1926). Pop.: 2 431 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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