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primitive methods of medical treatment, well-known among all peoples from antiquity and usually accompanied by various rituals.

In the early stages of the development of mankind, quackery was not differentiated from folk medicine and was practiced by sorcerers (healers and veduny}. However, sorcery was under the influence of theurgic (religious) medicine, in which the belief prevailed that illnesses came from evil spirits. In the class society, people came to use sorcerers in the interests of the religious cult. Gradually, sorcery changed into a profession, a means of enrichment for the sorcerers themselves. With the development of community life, sorcery’s content, form, and views changed considerably. Present-day manifestations of sorcery differ according to such factors as territorial and national peculiarities, the character of traditions, the level of general culture, and the extent of the diffusion of religious prejudices.

Ignorantly borrowing the methods of scientific medicine, the sorcerer reduced treatment to crude, sometimes criminal quackery and frequently resorted to primitive instruments and operations (pathological childbirth and abortions). In capitalist countries, the pharmaceutical market is flooded with patent preparations. Proper control for the issuing of such preparations is not exercised by government agencies. These preparations are promoted by shameless advertising created by private owners of companies, Who become both “healers” and salesmen of their own drugs.

In bourgeois states, particularly in colonial countries and those with weakly developed economies, the inaccessibility of medical help for the vast majority of the workers also furthers the development of quackery. Quackery was wide-spread in prerevolutionary Russia, especially in the villages; the inadequacy of medical aid, superstition, and ignorance were conducive to sorcery. In the outlying national regions of imperial Russia, sorcerers—khakims, tabibs, and khetims — abused the confidence of the working people.

In the USSR, thanks to the growth of the culture and material welfare of the people, the broad availability of free qualified medical help, and the development of hygiene education, quackery has no soil on which to grow. The measures of the Soviet state directed at the development of public health care are important in the struggle against quackery, which is most effective when combined with atheistic propaganda. By Soviet law, criminal accountability has been established for the illegal practice of medicine.



inferior doctor; formerly a barber performing dentistry and surgery. [Medicine: Misc.]
Dulcamara, Dr.
offered bad burgundy as panacea for lovelessness. [Ital. Opera: Donizetti, Elixir of Love; EB, 5: 953–954]
Rezio, Dr. Baratarian
court physician; practically starves Sancho Panza in the interest of diet. [Span. Lit.: Don Quixote]
Rock, Dr. Richard
fat, 18th-century quack; professed to cure every imaginable disease. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 888]
Sangrado, Dr.
ignorant physician; believed blood not necessary for life. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Walker, Dr.
great 18th-century quack, forever advising against disreputable doctors. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Handbook, 888]
References in periodicals archive ?
The nineteenth-century critic Willem Martin suggested that Dou left Out the lion because he could not paint animals, but the dog in The Quack Doctor and the cat in The Carpenter's Family (Royal Collection) are expertly drawn.
And however the resurrectionist began life, by the 19th century he had become a quack doctor, a common figure of fun in village communities.
In a full house of strong performances, there are stand-out turns from Tom Jordan Murphy as the joyously hammy ac-TOR Martyn Wallace (an arch luvvie with Ken Dodd hair), and Louis Lovett's impresario Willy Hayes, a frantic optimist with Wild West quack doctor looks.
A NORTH Wales man who gave cannabis to multiple sclerosis sufferers set himself up as a quack doctor, a court heard yesterday.
And my first part turned out to be the Quack Doctor in the panto Robinson Crusoe in 1978.
The few who succeed include Gel Basa as Adriana, the hysterical wife of one of the Antipholus twins; Gabo Tolentino as the Dromios who also doubles as everybody's punching bag; and Bunny Cadag, the bushy-haired quack doctor who makes quite an entrance toward the end.
The quack doctor in Downing Street deserves to pay a political price for his misdiag-nosis and botched operations.
The man responsible for the this drop was Joshua Ward (1684-1761), arguably the most successful quack doctor and charlatan of the 18th Century.
The manufacture of sulphuric acid in commercial quantities was down to a quack doctor, it was a shroud-maker who conceived the machines used in the first power cotton spinning factory, and a country parson who devised the first clumsy power loom and earliest successful wool-combing machine.
The Quack Doctor made a house call at the Georgian Country Fair in Pockerley Waggonway, Beamish Museum yesterday, complete with a doctor's bag stuffed with all types of questionable remedies.
WITH every day, David Cameron is looking more like a quack doctor peddling a potion that can "cure all ills".