# quantum

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## quantum

*Physics*

**a.**the smallest quantity of some physical property, such as energy, that a system can possess according to the quantum theory

**b.**a particle with such a unit of energy

## Quantum (physics)

A term characterizing an excitation in a wave or field, connoting fundamental particlelike properties such as energy or mass, momentum, and angular momentum for this excitation. In general, any field or wave equation that is quantized, including systems already treated in quantum mechanics that are second-quantized, leads to a particle interpretation for the excitations which are called quanta of the field. This term historically was first applied to indivisible amounts of electromagnetic, or light, energy usually referred to as photons. The photon, or quantum of the electromagnetic field, is a massless particle, best interpreted as such by quantizing Maxwell's equations. Analogously, the electron can be said to be the quantum of the Dirac field through second quantization of the Dirac equation, which also leads to the prediction of the existence of the positron as another quantum of this field with the same mass but with a charge opposite to that of the electron. In similar fashion, quantization of the gravitational field equations suggests the existence of the graviton. The pi meson or pion was theoretically predicted as the quantum of the nuclear force field. Another quantum is the quantized lattice vibration, or phonon, which can be interpreted as a quantized sound wave since it travels through a quantum solid or fluid, or through nuclear matter, in the same manner as sound goes through air.

The use of quantum as an adjective (quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics) implies that the particular subject is to be treated according to the modern rules that have evolved for quantized systems. *See* Elementary particle, Gravitation, Graviton, Maxwell's equations, Meson, Phonon, Photon, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics

## quantum

(**kwon**-tŭm) The minimum amount by which certain properties of a system, such as its energy or angular momentum, can change. The value of the property cannot therefore vary continuously but must change in steps: these steps are equal to or are integral multiples of the relevant quantum. This idea is the basis of quantum theory and quantum mechanics. The photon, for example, is a quantum of electromagnetic radiation.