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A type of flow pattern exhibited by superfluids, such as liquid 4He below 2.17 K (-455.76°F). The term vortex designates the familiar whirlpool pattern where the fluid moves circularly around a central line and the velocity diminishes inversely proportionally to the distance from the center. The strength of a vortex is determined by the circulation, which is the line integral of the velocity around any path enclosing the central line. See Vortex
A superfluid is believed to be characterized by a macroscopic (that is, large-scale) quantum-mechanical wave function &psgr;. This wave function locks the superfluid into a coherent state. Since the velocity around the vortex increases without limit as the center is approached, the superfluid density and thus &psgr; must vanish at the center in order to avoid an infinite energy. Thus the central core of the vortex marks the zeros, or nodal lines, in the macroscopic wave function. See Quantum mechanics
Quantized vortex lines are usually produced by rotating a vessel containing superfluid helium. At very low rotation speeds, no vortices exist: the superfluid remains at rest while the vessel rotates. At a certain speed the first vortex appears and corresponds to the first excited rotational state of the system. If the container continues to accelerate, additional quantized vortices will appear. At any given speed the vortices form a regular array which rotates with the vessel.
Quantized vortex lines were first detected in the mid-1950s by their influences on superfluid thermal waves traveling across the lines. In the late 1950s it was discovered that electrons in liquid helium form tiny charged bubbles which can become trapped on the vortex core but can move quite freely along the line. These electron bubbles (often referred to as ions) have been one of the most useful probes of quantized vortices. Researchers have been able to use ions to detect single quantized vortex lines. In one experiment the trapped ions are pulled out at the top of the vortex lines, accelerated, and focused onto a phosphor screen. The pattern of light thus produced on the phosphor is a map of the position of the vortices where they contact the liquid meniscus (see illustration). See Liquid helium, Superfluidity