quantum state

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quantum state

[′kwän·təm ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The condition of a physical system as described by a wave function; the function may be simultaneously an eigenfunction of one or more quantum-mechanical operators; the eigenvalues are then the quantum numbers that label the state.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
When this happens the bosons will all condense into the same quantum state.
The mysterious quantum features that Penrose claims can be explained with twistor theory include non-locality and quantum state reduction.
We were quite surprised by how well the quantum states survived traveling through the atmospheric turbulence to a ground station, said Christoph Marquardt from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Germany.
When assembled together correctly, the molecule scattering spectrum splits into two separated quantum states which is the signature of this 'mixing'.
The information in the dual quantum state needs to be translated back to be useful, so the D-Wave computer adds a layer of processing called annealing.
To conclude, we think that the epistemic element is inherent in the possibility to "choose" the degrees of freedom of the quantum system: this possibility affects the classification of quantum states in entangled or factorizables.
Therefore, we conclude that the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy in the absence of gravitational field survives at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states.
In standard quantum cryptographic techniques, the sender - called 'Alice' for convenience - generates a secret key by encoding classical bit values of 0 and 1 using two different quantum states of photons, or particles of light.
While the first qubits of a decade ago were able to maintain specific quantum states for about a nanosecond, Schoelkopfand his team are now able to maintain theirs for a microsecond--a thousand times longer, which is enough to run the simple algorithms, he said.
Using very detailed exercises (with solutions) and samples, and a conversational style, he describes qubits and quantum states, matrices and operations, tensor products, the density operator, quantum measurement theory, entanglement, quantum gates and circuits, quantum algorithms, applications of entanglement including teleportation and super-dense coding, quantum cryptography, quantum noise and error correction, tools of quantum information theory, adiabatic quantum computation and cluster state quantum computing.
The photons are sent in different quantum states, representing zero and one.

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