quantum state

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quantum state

[′kwän·təm ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The condition of a physical system as described by a wave function; the function may be simultaneously an eigenfunction of one or more quantum-mechanical operators; the eigenvalues are then the quantum numbers that label the state.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
The light, weakly attracting atoms have an endless wobble -- a quantum state of perpetual motion that prevents them from freezing.
The information in the dual quantum state needs to be translated back to be useful, so the D-Wave computer adds a layer of processing called annealing.
Therefore, we conclude that the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy in the absence of gravitational field survives at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states.
What are not identical, and what distinguishes this issue of Army Logistician from another magazine, in terms of QM, are the quantum states of the electrons that collectively make up each periodical.
The NIST experiments used laser beam manipulations to transfer quantum states of one beryllium atom to another atom with a 78 percent success rate.
We studied the neutron quantum states in the potential well formed by the Earth's gravitational field and a horizontal mirror.
One of the quantum states of photons, packages of light, is the direction in which they vibrate - known as polarisation.
In this study, a quantum cryptography scheme using three symmetric quantum states was investigated to determine whether the three-state scheme is more secure than a system that uses only two quantum states.
To answer this question, we present a necessary and sufficient criterion for multipartite entangled states; this criterion is particularly useful when the density matrix of the given quantum states has few nonzero eigenvalues.
They would have to be easily and rapidly produced, connections to other components would also have to be devised and a rapid and power-efficient way to modulate the available quantum states would need to be developed.
Tightly focused laser beams then drive individual ions into desired quantum states and interrogate their state.
l) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST) have developed the fundamental building block for a powerful, future quantum computer by being able to control the superposition of quantum states in a solid-state electron device.

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