quantum state

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quantum state

[′kwän·təm ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The condition of a physical system as described by a wave function; the function may be simultaneously an eigenfunction of one or more quantum-mechanical operators; the eigenvalues are then the quantum numbers that label the state.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
For instance, data stored as quantum states could become corrupted more readily in such clouds than in individual particles.
The correlation arises because the objects occupy a joint quantum state. When the entanglement ends--because of a measurement, for example--the once-entangled states must adopt related values.
In loop quantum gravity, that means finding the right connection between microscopic quantum states of space, represented by spin networks, and the macroscopic surface area of a black hole's event horizon.
Scientists world-wide are in pursuit of radical proposals to exploit coherent quantum states for a diverse range of applications including communication, information processing, and metrology.
Theorists had incorrectly expected that electrical interactions between so many electrons would thoroughly scramble the quantum states, washing out the possibility of strong correlations between ground and excited states of quantum dots with different numbers of electrons.
Quantum information is fragile and easily disturbed, however, so handling combinations of quantum states, such as electron spins, presents considerable difficulties.
Indeed, teleportation of the quantum states of particles is likely to become an important tool in efforts to design, build, and operate quantum computers (SN: 1/14/95, p.
Thanks to a photon's multiple quantum states and immunity from observation and manipulation, wrapping an encryption key with a photonic quantum key prevents the transmission from being unknowingly interrupted, corrupted, cloned, or exposed -- creating a superior, next-generation solution for mission-critical data security.
"But it only works if the photons are coherent, meaning they preserve their quantum states for a sufficiently long time."
Due to its enormous 60-atom size, the overall molecule has a staggeringly high number of ways to vibrateat least 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 vibrational quantum states when the molecule is warm.
Meanwhile, Quantum Frontiers is an interdisciplinary network of physicists, engineers and scientists, with the goal of controlling the quantum states of light and matter, which would form the basis of future metrology via new nanoscale measurement methods.
Among specific topics are photons in free flight, radiation modes and polarization, qubits based on light photon statistics and quantum states, and near-field and far-field optics.

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