Quarantine of Plants

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Quarantine of Plants

 

the group of measures taken by the state to prevent the introduction and spread of the pests, diseases, and weeds presenting the greatest danger to farm crops.

The quarantine of plants is aimed at protecting the plant resources of the nation. Each year plant pests and diseases destroy 20-25 percent of the potential world harvest of food crops (equaling $50 billion, according to the average price level on the world market). According to the calculations (1969) of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Plant Protection, the value of the farm products that could be obtained on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the USSR by eliminating the probable annual crop losses caused by pests, diseases, and weeds would come to around 10 billion rubles.

The first law on the quarantine of plants appeared in France in 1660 in response to epiphytotics of stem rust. From 1870 through 1915, quarantine laws were passed by a majority of the nations with developed agricultural production that were involved in the exchange of plant materials (Germany, France, Australia, Austria, the United States, Mexico). By the 1970’s, more than 100 nations had established quarantine regulations and had set up institutions for supervising their execution. In Russia, the first quarantine law for plants was issued in 1873. In 1931 the USSR created a quarantine service that exercises general leadership over quarantine measures through the State Quarantine Inspectorate of the Central Administration for Plant Protection (under the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR), along with republic and oblast quarantine inspectorates that are subordinate to it. In the same year, the first list of quarantine diseases and pests was established. In 1935 a list of quarantine weeds was established as well. These lists are periodically revised as the various types of harmful organisms are studied (area of distribution, biology, ecology) and the quarantine state of foreign countries reviewed. (The list approved in 1967 contained the quarantine pests listed in Table 1, the diseases listed in Table 2, and the weeds listed in Table 3.)

Table 1. Quarantine pests
1Quarantine measures applied to produce imported from abroad
Common nameLatin name
Not reported in the USSR
Scale insects and mealybugs
Citrus scaleUnaspis citri
Eastern citrus scaleUnaspis japonensis
Citrus mealybugPseudococcus citriculus
Fig scaleCeroplastes rusci
Beetles
White-fringed weevilPantomorus leucoloma
Khapra beetleTrogoderma granarium
Southern cowpea weevilCallosobruchus chinensis
Cowpea weevilCallosobruchus maculatus
Broad-nosed grain weevilCaulophilus latinasus
Japanese beetlePopillia japonica
Butterflies and moths
Potato mothPhthorimaea opercullela
Pink bollwormPectinophora gossypiella
Flies
Mandarin fruit flyTetradacus citri
Mediterranean fruit flyCeratitis capitata
Apple maggotRhagoletis pomonella
Limited distribution in the USSR
Plant lice and aphids
Grape phylloxera (vine louse)Viteus vitifoliae
Whiteflies
Common citrus whiteflyDialeurodes citri
Scale insects and mealybugs
Cottony-cushion scaleIcerya purchasi
San Jose scaleQuadraspidiotus perniciosus
White peach scalePseudaulacaspis pentagona
Citrophilus mealybugPseudococcus gahani
Comstock mealybugPseudococcus comstocki
Japanese wax scaleCeroplastes japonicus
Japanese peony scalePseudaonidia paeoniae
Japanese bacillary scaleLeucaspis japonica
Beetles
Apple borerAgrilus mali
Colorado potato beetleLeptinotarsa decemlineata
Butterflies and moths
Fall webwormHyphantria cunea
Oriental fruit mothGrapholitha delineana
Hemp tortrix1Grapholitha molesta
Hollyhock seed mothPectinophora malvella
Peach mothCarposina sasakii
Citrus moth1Phylocnistis citrella

The duties of the quarantine service include the inspection of plants, seeds, planting stock, grain products, fruits, and vegetables

Table 2. Quarantine plant diseases
DiseaseCausative agent
Not reported in the USSR
Cotton anthracnoseColletotrichum gossypii
Ascochyta blight of chrysanthemumAscochyta chrysanthemi
Bacterial wilt of cornBacterium stenarti
Bacterial citrus cancerXanthomonas citri
White rust of chrysanthemumPuccinia horiana
Viral diseases of citrus (tristeza, quick decline, yellow dragon)Virus sp. sp.
India wheat buntNeovossia indica
Fire blightErwinia amylovora
Silver leaf of beetsCorynebacterium betae
Texas root rotOzonium omnivorum
Limited distribution in the USSR
Flax pasmoSeptoria linicola
Root knot of potatoesHeterodera rostochiensis
Potato wartSynchytrium endobioticum
Plum poxPrunus virus 7
Table 3. Quarantine weeds
Common nameLatin nameBiological type
Not reported in the USSR
Coastal ragweedAmbrosia maritimaAnnual
Poverty weedIva axillarisSoboliferous perennial
Trompillo (white horse nettle)Solanum elaeagnifoliumSoboliferous perennial
Cut-leaved nightshadeSolanum triflorumAnnual
California sunflowerHelianthus californicusPerennial
BlueweedHelianthus ciliarisPerennial
Prairie sunflowerHelianthus petiolarisAnnual
Stiff sunflowerHelianthus scaberrimusAnnual
Helianthus, all other weed speciesHelianthus spp.Perennials and annuals
Striga, all speciesStriga spp.Root Semi~arasites
Limited distribution in the USSR
Western ragweedAmbrosia psilostachyaSoboliferous perennial
Common ragweedAmbrosia artemisiifoliaAnnual
Great ragweedAmbrosia trifidaAnnual
Mountain bluetAcropotilon repensSoboliferous perennial
Horse nettleSolanum carolinenseSoboliferous perennial
Buffalo bur (prickly nightshade)Solanum rostratumAnnual
Common sunflowerHelianthus lenticularisAnnual
Dodders, all speciesCuscuta spp.Stem parasites
Sandbur grassCenchrus tribuloidesAnnual

in order to uncover the presence of dangerous pests, the pathogens of plant diseases, and quarantine weeds in large commercial lots and packages, in the parcels, hand luggage, and baggage of passengers arriving from other states, and in the vehicles, warehouses, and enterprises where imported products subject to quarantine are stored and processed. Internal quarantine regulates the shipping of plant materials within the country; external quarantine protects the state against foreign pests, diseases, and weeds.

The plant quarantine service of the USSR operates in cooperation with the equivalent service in other states. In 1956 the USSR joined the international Rome Convention on Plant Quarantine and Protection. In 1957 it joined the European and Mediterranean Organization for Plant Protection. In 1960 it ratified the Cooperative Agreement Plant Quarantine and Protection, concluded between the member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. In addition, bilateral agreements have been established with 11 neighboring states stipulating reciprocal obligations for combating dangerous plant pests, diseases, and weeds.

REFERENCES

Karantin rastenii v SSSR. Edited by A. L. Efimov and N. S. Shcherbinovskii. Moscow, 1937.
Dvadtsatiletnie itogi karantinnoi ekspertizy importnykh rastite’nykh materialov (1931-1951). Moscow-Leningrad, 1952.
Ustav gosudarstvennoi sluzhby po karantinu rastenii v SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
Vrediteli, bolezni i sorniaki, obnaruzhennye v importnykh rastite’nykh gruzakh: Vsesoiuznaia svodka s 1937 po 1959 g. Moscow, 1964.
Spravochnik po karantinnym i drugim opasnym vrediteliam, bolezniam i sornym rasteniiam, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1970.

A. D. SOKOLOV, N. N. SHUTOVA, and L. P. KUZ’MINA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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52.7 million soms were spent for pollution control, 131.7 million soms for nature reserves and natural parks, 9.8 million soms for animal protection, 105.6 million soms for erosion control, 134.6 million soms for veterinary diagnostics, 85.9 million soms for chemicalization, protection and quarantine of plants, 231.4 million soms for other services for the protection of biodiversity and landscape protection .