Quarry


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quarry

[′kwär·ē]
(engineering)
An open or surface working or excavation for the extraction of building stone, ore, coal, gravel, or minerals.

Quarry

A small, square or diamond-shaped pane of glass used in leaded windows.

Quarry

 

an open-cut operation for mining coal, ores, and nonmetallic materials. In the coal industry the quarry is called a pit, and in ore mining it is sometimes referred to as a mine. The word “quarry” is also used for the excavations created by open-cut operations.

In a quarry the work includes excavating, transporting, and unloading minerals, overburden, and covering and enclosing deposits. The aim of the mining is to fulfill the plan quotas for extracting minerals and to create mineral reserves ready for excavation. A notable feature of a quarry is the continually changing work area. Modern quarries are highly mechanized, with machines and equipment for breaking down, removing, transporting, and storing any rock. The basic production units of small quarries, which mine nonmetallic building materials, are the mining shop (section) and the mineral processing shop. In the large coal and ore open-cut mines, the units include territorial sections or specialized shops (for example, drilling, blasting, cutting-loading, and transport). In addition, the quarry or open-cut mine includes auxiliary and subsidiary shops and sections. In ore mining the open-cut mine itself is frequently a shop of the mining-concentrating or metallurgical combine (such as the NoriPsk Mining-Metallurgical Combine and the Krivoi Rog mining-concentrating combines).

A complex of mine excavations is involved in working the rock in benches. The rock cutting within the benches is carried out in sequential strips—that is, passes of the excavators along the faces of the benches. The upper benches are done before the lower. In working horizontal deposits, the depth of the quarry or mine is fixed, and the advance of the benches leads to an increase in the size of the quarry, with the overburden usually being returned to the dug-out area. Mining work in sloping or steeply tilted deposits necessitates the deepening of the quarry or mine and the creation (cutting) of new benches by digging cross section trenches. In this case the working of the above-lying benches must advance more rapidly. Sloping major trenches are made for providing transport between the surface and the faces in the mine. Planning the construction of the quarry or mine includes providing for the stripping and cutting of benches along the deposit, with the benches in the capping overburden being worked more rapidly than the benches below, and the construction of access transport arteries as well as production buildings and housing.

The depth of individual quarries and mines in the USSR (1970) reaches several hundred meters (for example, the Kor-kino Mine of 300 m), and the planned depth of a number of mines is 500-700 m. The productivity of the large quarries and mines in the USSR is tens of millions of tons of ore per year (for example, the open-cut mine of the southern mining-concentrating combine, or IuGOK, and the northern mining-concentrating combine, or SevGOK, in Krivoi Rog). In 1972 coal and ore mines were being designed to produce 40-50 million tons annu ally for the mineral and over 100 million tons for the overburden.

REFERENCES

Mel’nikov, N. V. Spravochnik inzhenera i tekhnika po otkrytym gornym rabotam, 4th ed. Moscow, 1961.
Rzhevskii, V. V. Tekhnologiia, mekhanizatsiia i avtomatizatsiia protsessov otkrytykh gornykh razrabotok. Moscow, 1966.
Rzhevskii, V. V. Tekhnologiia i kompleksnaia mekhanizatsiia otkrytykh gornykh rabot. Moscow, 1968.
Kuleshov, N. A., and Iu. I. Anistratov. Tekhnologiia otkrytykh gornykh rabot. Moscow, 1968.

IU. I. ANISTRATOV

quarry

1. An open excavation at the earth’s surface from which building stone is extracted.
2. Same as quarry glass.

Quarry

Cerynean stag
captured by Hercules as third Labor. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Hall, 149]
Cretan bull
savage bull caught by Hercules as seventh Labor. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Hall, 149]
Erymanthian boar
Hercules’ fourth Labor: to take this ravaging beast alive. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Hall, 149]
fetching Cerberus
Hercules’ twelfth Labor: capture the Hadean watchdog. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Hall, 150]
Moby Dick
pursued by Ahab and crew of Pequod. [Am. Lit.: Moby Dick]
Nemean lion
awesome beast strangled by Hercules as first Labor. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Hall, 148]
Old Ben
great bear; subject of annual quest by mature men. [Am. Lit.: The Bear in Six Modern Short Novels]
oxen of Geryon
captured after tremendous obstacles overcome; Hercules’ tenth Labor. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.: Hall, 149]
snark
elusive imaginary animal. [Br. Lit.: The Hunting of the Snark]
Wolfman
metamorphosed man hunted down by armed men as wild beast. [Am. Lit.: Wolfman]
References in classic literature ?
"What remains to you over and above," Ernest interrupted to ask, "would roughly be the equivalent of your salary as a manager did the railroad own the quarry."
The railroad might just as well have owned my quarry and hired me to run it."
And the rain did what Tarzan knew that it would do-- it wiped the spoor of the quarry from the face of the earth.
He sniffed the bole of the tree, and with his keen eyes he sought to find upon the bark some sign of the way the quarry had taken.
As Taug and Tarzan reached the grove where Toog had come upon his friends, the ape scent became so strong that both knew the quarry was but a short distance ahead.
The splendid fellow was driving the quarry straight toward me.
Now, as they went along, Herbert reflected, that I might, after all, have been brought there on some genuine and serviceable errand tending to Provis's safety, and, bethinking himself that in that case interruption must be mischievous, left his guide and Startop on the edge of the quarry, and went on by himself, and stole round the house two or three times, endeavouring to ascertain whether all was right within.
Kovudoo and his men came upon Korak, Akut and Meriem after the killing of the king ape, the noise of the combat having led them at last straight to their quarry. The sight of the slender white girl had amazed the savage chief and held him gazing at the trio for a moment before ordering his warriors to rush out upon their prey.
Tarzan thought much on this wondrous method of slaying as he swung slowly along at a safe distance behind his quarry. He knew that alone the tiny prick of the arrow could not so quickly dispatch these wild things of the jungle, who were often torn and scratched and gored in a frightful manner as they fought with their jungle neighbors, yet as often recovered as not.
Commissioners on Wednesday heard two hours of testimony from Old Hazeldell Quarry representatives and another two hours of comments from the public.
The quarry, which was viewed as a threat to the reserve and the historic nature of the valley, was shut down after officials from the Interior Ministry intervened, the reserve's head, Ali Zein, told The Daily Star.
4.50 million for training of quarry workers of FATA.