Quiroga, Juan Facundo

Quiroga, Juan Facundo

(hwän fäko͞on`thō kērō`gä), 1790–1835, Argentine caudillocaudillo
, [Span.,= military strongman], type of South American political leader that arose with the 19th-century wars of independence. The first caudillos were often generals who, leading private armies, used their military might to achieve power in the newly independent states.
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. One of the most brutal of the early gaucho chieftains, he was called el tigre de los llanos (the tiger of the plains). After a turbulent youth, Quiroga participated briefly in the 1810 revolution against Spain and then rose rapidly to become, by 1822, virtual overlord of the Andean provinces of Argentina. Anxious to preserve control over his fiefdoms, he became a supporter of federalism. With other provincial caudillos he rejected the unitarian constitution of 1826, thus contributing to the downfall of President Bernardino RivadaviaRivadavia, Bernardino
, 1780–1845, Argentine statesman and diplomat, first president of the United Provinces of La Plata (1826–27). He served (1806–7) under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders and was a leading advocate of independence in 1810.
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 and to the installation (1827) of Manuel DorregoDorrego, Manuel
, 1787–1828, Argentine statesman and soldier, governor of Buenos Aires province (1820, 1827–28). After serving for a time in the War of Independence, he returned (1816) to Buenos Aires and became a journalist.
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, a federalist, as governor of Buenos Aires. When Juan LavalleLavalle, Juan
, 1797–1841, Argentine general, governor of Buenos Aires province (1828–29). He served (1816–24) in the War of Independence and (1826–28) in the war with Brazil. Returning to Buenos Aires, he led his troops in revolt (Dec.
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 rose against Dorrego and had him executed, Quiroga and Juan Manuel de RosasRosas, Juan Manuel de
, 1793–1877, Argentine dictator, governor of Buenos Aires prov. (1829–32, 1835–52). As a boy he served under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders of the Rio de la Plata (1806–7).
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 joined Estanislao López, caudillo of Santa Fe, in putting down the insurrection and in destroying temporarily but with ruthless thoroughness the unitarian cause. In 1834, Quiroga came to Buenos Aires, which was then ruled by Rosas. Quiroga was assassinated while returning from a mission to the northern provinces, and it was believed that Rosas, who was angered by the rival caudillo, had instigated the killing. A famous study of Quiroga and his era is Domingo F. Sarmiento's Facundo (tr. Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants, 6th ed. 1961).
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