Qumran


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Related to Qumran: Masada, Essenes

Qumran

(ko͞omrän`), ancient village on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, in what is now the Israeli-occupied West Bank. It is famous for its caves, in some of which the Dead Sea ScrollsDead Sea Scrolls,
ancient leather and papyrus scrolls first discovered in 1947 in caves on the NW shore of the Dead Sea. Most of the documents were written or copied between the 1st cent. B.C. and the first half of the 1st cent. A.D.
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 were found. Archaeological work at Qumran has yielded a profile of its history. In Israelite times it was the site of a small settlement and was probably called the city of Salt (Joshua 15.62). Between c.130 B.C. and c.110 B.C. Qumran was rebuilt. It was destroyed (31 B.C.) by an earthquake and was rebuilt c.4 B.C. The Romans destroyed it (A.D. 68) and made use of the site as a military fortress.

The first archaeologists to excavate the later Jewish ruins at Qumran identified them with the ascetic community that produced the Dead Sea Scroll known as the Manual of Discipline, but recent interpretations by other archaeologists have suggested the inhabitants of the ruins lived in relative luxury and that the scrolls may have come from Jerusalem. Most recently, some archaelogists have proposed that Qumran was a pottery manufacturing center before its destruction by the Romans. At present, scholars do not agree on whether any link can be established between the ruins at Qumran and the scrolls found in the nearby caves.

Bibliography

See C. T. Frisch, The Qumran Community (1956, repr. 1972); J. van der Ploeg, The Excavations at Qumran (1958).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The desert Qumran sect, which referred to itself by the word for "together," Yahad, thought their calendar was more perfect and holy, with special occasions always falling on the same day.
Moreover, the two calendars mentioned in Jewish sources are relatively easy to calculate, since the 360-day calendar of Enoch was essentially the administrative calendar of 12 months of 30 days each (see Stern 2012: 84), while the 364-day calendar of Jubilees and used in Qumran was simply an idealized solar calendar based on 52 weeks.
Recently, a twelfth cave in Qumran has been discovered.
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In the section entitled "The Origins and History of the Qumran Community," D.
Feldman (Brite Divinity School, Texas) examines the exegesis of The Book of Joshua in the Hebrew Bible in six Qumran scrolls, which have been little studied before.
Passio iusti, passio pauperis in Qumran. A Discussion on Martyrdom in Jewish Theology
The Qumran scrolls are fragments--usually very, very fragmentary--of over 900 scrolls, all or almost all of them literary texts.
Shamir and Sukenik focussed on the 200 textiles found in the Dead Sea Scroll caves and at Qumran itself, knowing that these are the only surviving textiles related to the scrolls.
The "Mysteries" of Qumran: Mystery, Secrecy, and Esotericism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, by Samuel I.
"Beyond the Qumran Community: The Sectarian Movement of the Dead Sea Scrolls" focuses on the Qumran community focusing on the periods and the origins of the texts that have fueled much of the research surrounding the scrolls.