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(ko͞omrän`), ancient village on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, in what is now the Israeli-occupied West Bank. It is famous for its caves, in some of which the Dead Sea ScrollsDead Sea Scrolls,
ancient leather and papyrus scrolls first discovered in 1947 in caves on the NW shore of the Dead Sea. Most of the documents were written or copied between the 1st cent. B.C. and the first half of the 1st cent. A.D.
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 were found. Archaeological work at Qumran has yielded a profile of its history. In Israelite times it was the site of a small settlement and was probably called the city of Salt (Joshua 15.62). Between c.130 B.C. and c.110 B.C. Qumran was rebuilt. It was destroyed (31 B.C.) by an earthquake and was rebuilt c.4 B.C. The Romans destroyed it (A.D. 68) and made use of the site as a military fortress.

The first archaeologists to excavate the later Jewish ruins at Qumran identified them with the ascetic community that produced the Dead Sea Scroll known as the Manual of Discipline, but recent interpretations by other archaeologists have suggested the inhabitants of the ruins lived in relative luxury and that the scrolls may have come from Jerusalem. Most recently, some archaelogists have proposed that Qumran was a pottery manufacturing center before its destruction by the Romans. At present, scholars do not agree on whether any link can be established between the ruins at Qumran and the scrolls found in the nearby caves.


See C. T. Frisch, The Qumran Community (1956, repr. 1972); J. van der Ploeg, The Excavations at Qumran (1958).

References in periodicals archive ?
marshals evidence against the Groningen hypothesis that at an early stage the Qumran community broke away from the Essene movement.
Since purity concerns are of such importance to the rabbis and the Qumran community, it is not surprising to find a chapter on toilet habits.
This leads Maier to suggest that the Qumran community which was under priestly influence continued to maintain usage of the standard text used in the Jerusalem Temple (Maier 1987:3).
For early Jews and Christians, Snyder cites (5) Philo, who saw himself as teaching through his writings; (6) the Qumran community, who produced a variety of texts, pesher commentaries, translations, abbreviations, anthologies, and re-presentations of Scripture; (7) scribes in Palestine, who translated and interpreted texts while controlling access to them; and (8) early Christian text-brokers, like Paul, who used Scripture very selectively to demonstrate their authority to teach, or Barnabas and 1 Clement, who preferred anthologies and commentaries.
The early Christian church was communistic; similarly, members of the Qumran community had to give up all private property.
This extreme example points up the antithesis of the Markan Gospel: the Markan Jesus reaches out to touch and transform the very ones whom the Qumran community excludes.
But if their lifestyle is "de-linked from the society," they are like the Essenes or Qumran community of biblical times who saw the world as evil and corrupt but did not try to change it.
The Dead Sea Scrolls, critical to all Judaic studies' specialties as a primary source, describe in detail an eyewitness's account of the Ancient Qumran community.
The Qumran community, as Josephus observed, did not bathe often or use oil.
After surveying Canadian scholarship and projects, they look at "biblical" scrolls and transmission of the scriptures, the Qumran community, and Qumran and Second Temple Judaism.
s work is very well-researched, with over 19 pages of important bibliography, but with the surprising omission of Catherine Murphy's Wealth in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran Community (2002).
These proto-rabbinic and halakhically lenient nomikoi are categorically distinguished from the pharisaic perushim who, in Sigal's view, rigorously sought to separate themselves from the wider society, as at the Qumran community.