lipoic acid

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lipoic acid:

see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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Lipoic Acid


6,8-epi-dithio-octanoic acid, a widespread naturally occurring coenzyme, related to enzymes of the class of oxidoreductases. It exists in the form of crystals with melting point 59°-60°C and was first isolated from bull’s liver in 1941 (30 mg of lipoic acid was obtained from 10 tons of liver).

Lipoic acid participates in the transfer of acyl groups (acid radicals) and in biological oxidation reactions (for example, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic and ketoglutaric acids for conversion into acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA, respectively, with liberation of carbon dioxide). The oxidized form of lipoic acid is transformed into a reduced form, which is then reconverted into the oxidized form upon action of a specific enzyme:

Lipoic acid is the growth factor (vitamin) in certain microorganisms; it exists in composite protein form in the cells of plant and animal tissues.

lipoic acid

[lī′pō·ik ′as·əd]
C8H14O2S2 A compound which participates in the enzymatic oxidative decarboxylation of α-keto acids in a stage between thiamine pyrophosphate and coenzyme A.
References in periodicals archive ?
A dose of pure R-lipoic acid provides twice the active ingredient as a typical R/S-alpha lipoic acid supplement, simply because the whole dose consists of the active "R" molecule.
20) It was emphasized in another review that lipoic acid, particularly R-lipoic acid, has a cholinergic neuroprotective effect and lipoic acid is a multimodal agent in AD.
Nutrient Typical Daily Dose Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) 10-20 mg CoQ10 100-200 mg R-lipoic acid 300-600 mg Trans-resveratrol 250 mg Acetyl-L-carnitine 1,000-2,000 mg
Many foods and nutritional supplements will increase intracellular levels of glutathione, such as R-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, vitamins C and E, whey protein, and broccoli.
An important animal study has now demonstrated that supplementation with R-lipoic acid reverses age-related accumulation of iron in rat brain tissue and restores normal antioxidant activity.
For more information about Insulow and research supporting the use of r-lipoic acid and biotin in the care and treatment of diabetes, please visit www.
59) This translates into a 300 mg dose of R-lipoic acid to obtain the same biological activity.
124) Lipoic acid exists in two mirror-image forms: R-lipoic acid and S-lipoic acid.
A dramatic new study has unveiled an advanced new formulation of lipoic acid called sodium-R-lipoic acid, which is more potent and stable than pure R-lipoic acid.
This is the form of R-lipoic acid that is most readily available to cells and tissues as it does not need to undergo any chemical reduction in the body.
10) The dose of R-lipoic acid to achieve this effect in diabetics would be half this amount, since it is the "R" form of lipoic acid that is biologically active in the body.