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The values for frequency error (FE) and ROCOF error (RFE) are not presented.
The ROCOF can be then calculated as the time derivative of CIF.
It can be seen from 14) that the cycle time also depends on the value of [f.sub.1] and it changes adaptively to shorten the duration of the disturbance and keep the absolute value of the ROCOF equal to 1.5/[T.sub.1].
Alternatively, there are test statistics which can be used to look for an increasing and/or decreasing trend in ROCOF data.
Furthermore, the paper presented the appropriate statistical methods to assess the validity (or otherwise) of such a procedure, and detailed the calculation of the ROCOF curves and the Laplace test for trend.