The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a division of anthropology that studies the races of man.

Drawing on the data of morphology, physiology, genetics, and molecular biology, contemporary raciology examines the problems of the classification of races, their origin, their settlement patterns, and their development and interaction, in connection with the specific history of human populations. Raciology attaches particular importance to research directed at defining racial traits and determining their inheritance and their relationship to the natural geographic and sociocultural environment, to sexual differences, to the dynamics of aging, to geographic variations, and to historical changes. The most important racial traits are hair form (curly or straight); degree of development of tertiary hair cover; color of skin, hair, and eyes (iris); and the absolute dimensions and numerous distinctive structural features of the facial skeleton and the soft parts of the face—the eye area, the nose, and the lips. Smaller racial subdivisions (local races) are distinguished by various dimensions of the cranium and their percentage relationship (indexes), as well as by average body height.

In raciology the analysis of the variability of different odon-tological, dermatoglyphic, serologic, and other traits with a relatively well-defined genetic basis continues to increase in importance. Raciology is closely related to cultural anthropology, which, in studying the racial composition of the world population, uses anthropological data as a historical source and is in turn supported by the data of the social sciences (archaeology, ethnology, and linguistics, for example). The results of research in raciology show the common origin of biological equality of all races, thus disproving the misanthropic conceptions of racism.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(4) See Claude Blanckaert, 'Geographie et anthropologic: une rencontre necessaire (XVIIIe-XIXe siecle)', Ethnologie francaise 34 (2004): 661-9; Bronwen Douglas, 'Geography, raciology and the naming of Oceania', Globe 69 (2011): 1-29.
However, the fine line of cultural understanding should not be limited to a fine line division between (1) African-European American supremacist similitude, and (2) what Gilroy considers as "raciology's victims" who struggle to be self-determined.
As stated previously, Appiah's concept of cosmopolitanism is based on Kantian constructs, and as Simon Gikandi points out, Immanuel Kant should be considered the "father of raciology" (598).
Most other authors dabbled in the raciology of the time, associating "Sakai" with "Veddoids" etc., and "Semang" with the so-called "Negrito" populations found also, it was thought, in the Philippines and the Andaman Islands.
In this passage, Reizenstein makes use of scientific racism, or raciology, to divulge Lucy's true race to his readers.
From the early nineteenth century, such terms registered the growing complicity of the spatial science of geography with a nascent science of race or raciology (Blanckaert 2004).
The Interrupted Journey, poised at the cusp of the technological revolution in which Gilroy will later see so much promise, expresses deep-seated anxieties about a technologically mediated raciology. Indeed, the book symptomizes a number of concerns surrounding race pertinent to an interracial couple in the United States of the 1960s and, in doing so, poses difficult questions to Gilroy's utopian vision.
(1) The emergence of sociology in specialized periodicals and institutions in the 1890s elicited a direct revolt against anthropological varieties of biological determinism and "raciology." Emile Durkheim and his collaborators on the Annee sociologique (first published in 1898) have long had the reputation of promoting this "discovery of the social." (2) The neglected nonDurkheimian sociologists associated with Rene Worms (1869-1926) have suffered from the taint of "organicism--advocating the analogy of societies to biological organisms.
to a current "crisis of raciology," largely the result of
He describes, for example, how Jane Austin approached the issues of empire, including slavery, how the French Revolution and its tenets affected Mary Wollstonecraft and British raciology, how the questions of nature, and how religion and science of the period informed rationality and religion, creating a racially-imbued "other." Women writers also under review in this work include Maria Edgeworth, Fanny Burney, and Mary Shelley.
In presenting my own explanation of why the Khoikhoi were so despised, I will maintain what might appear, at first, a paradoxical position: the evolution of European attitudes towards the Khoikhoi from contact to the rise of nineteenth-century raciology is characterized not by increasing belief in their Otherness or beastliness but rather by the increasing insistence on the Hottentot's humanness and cultural banality.
In the narrow sense, racism makes specific reference to biological differences, 'raciology' (see Appendix B), for the purposes of subjugating and exploiting certain populations stemming from areal or imagined fear.