"Climate Change" also describe the roles that the atmosphere and ocean play in our climate, introduce the concept of radiation balance
, and explain climate changes that occurred in the past.
Stratospheric water vapor directly affects the Earth radiation balance
, so a better understanding of AACP storm duration, height, frequency, and global distribution will also be beneficial to the climate research community.--Kristopher Bedka (NASA), E.
For example, the following radiation balance
in the radial direction can be written as
The radiative forcing (RF) concept has been used for many years in the assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for evaluating and comparing the strengths of the various mechanisms affecting Earth's radiation balance
, thereby causing climate change [13, 14].
Many researches on radiation balance
with Landsat 5 and 7 images have used maximum (Lmax) and minimum (Lmin) radiances in the process of conversion of the gray level into spectral radiance (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998; Allen et al., 2002; 2007; Silva et al., 2005b; 2011).
The radiation balance
is modified according to the surface structure due to materials' characteristics of albedo and emissivity.
The contribution of [L.sub.1] [down arrow] to the downward component of the radiation balance
is greater than that of solar radiation (Fig.
These same authors also reported that in a study in the Amazon, the H flux showed similar relationship with radiation balance
. However, with the extension of the dry season, there was an increase in the sensible heat flux values due to limited evaporation.
Frost flowers formed and grew overnight in the absence of shortwave radiation, while the net longwave radiation was negative and dominated the net all-wave radiation balance
at the surface.
According to reference data and cartographic materials (only in difficult cases) the heat provision characteristics were determined for all points (radiation balance
or the sum of temperatures above 10 [degrees]C) and the average annual amount of precipitation.
They are combined with the short-wave radiation components, [I.sub.s], into a collective heat source at the surface which may have positive or negative value, depending on the overall radiation balance
: a positive value leads to heating up the component and a negative value leads to cooling it.