radiation belts

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radiation belts

One or more doughnut-shaped regions in the magnetosphere of a planet in which energetic electrons and the ionized nuclei of atoms, chiefly protons from hydrogen atoms, are trapped by the planet's magnetic field. The particles within the belt, whose axis is the magnetic axis of the planet, spiral along magnetic field lines, traveling backward and forward between reflections which occur as they approach the magnetic poles. This motion produces synchrotron emission from the particles. The particles are either captured from the solar wind or are formed by collisions between cosmic rays and atoms or ions in the planet's outer atmosphere.

The Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are all known to possess radiation belts. The magnetic field of Mercury appears to be too weak to sustain belts. The radiation belts of Jupiter are many times more intense than the Van Allen radiation belts of the Earth and pose a threat to spacecraft systems in the vicinity of the planet.

References in periodicals archive ?
"Radiation belt electrons are released from the Earth's magnetic field and charge the mesosphere during auroral breakup.
One of the concerns for astronauts who will visit both of these environments is the health threat from deep space radiation, which includes high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar proton events (solar flares), gamma rays (from black holes) and radiation belts encircling earth and other celestial bodies.
February, 1966: Two Russian dogs sent through the Van Allen radiation belt - the highest flight at that time by living creatures.
Topics of the 19 papers include global MHD eigenmodes of the outer magnetosphere, the effect of EMIC waves on radiation belt particles, passive and active radar techniques for detecting the ULF waves, and electron phase space density signatures.
I do not know what planet these people come from but their brain cells must have been seriously damaged as they passed through the Van Allen radiation belt.
The satellite dips into Earth's radiation belt every five hours.
In addition to this radiation zone, the craft found particles in the relativistic electron radiation belt that have never been observed before and that researchers don't understand as of now.
Juno will travel through the previously unexplored region above the planet's poles, collecting the first images from that region, along with data about electromagnetic forces and high-energy particles in the harsh radiation belt environment of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere.
Specific topics include narrow plasmas streams as a candidate to populate the inner magnetosphere, quick response of the near-earth magnetotail to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field, energetic electron response to magnetic storms, experimental data on the dynamics of the earth's radiation belt, injection of energetic ions during substorms, substorm associated spikes in high energy particle precipitation, and ring current behavior as revealed by energetic proton precipitation.
The final session will cover Space Protection Technologies and Programs and will include briefings on Space Electronics Overview (Maj Tony Kadrovach, USAF, AFRL/VSSE); Nuclear and Natural Radiation Belt Remediation (Capt Aaron Metz, USAF, AFRL/VSSV); Belt Remediation Physics (Dr.
America got into space to stay on February 1, 1958, when Explorer 1 went into orbit to the gleeful, heavily accented jubilation of Wernher von Braun: "A great day for American rocketry!" Explorer's not-quite-accidental discovery of a radiation belt around the Earth--predicted in theory a half-century earlier by a European physicist--stands in the record books as the first significant discovery of the Space Age.