Since the optically thick cloud was sampled over open ocean and sea ice, two modes in the frequency distribution of solar cloud radiative forcing
Caption: Albedo effects Radiative forcing
and climate responses
Blaschke, "Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing
over mega city Karachi," Atmospheric Research, vol.
More in detail, in addition to the contrail formation, the algorithm determines the lifetime and the net radiative forcing
associated with the specific 4-Dimensional (4D) trajectory of an aircraft in defined space and time.
On the other hand, the radiative forcing
from aerosol-cloud interactions (RFaci) refers to the instantaneous effect on cloud albedo due to changing concentrations of cloud condensation and ice nuclei, also known as the Twomey effect (Twomey, 1977).
"It is also clear that the oceans absorb about 85% of the excess heat resulting from this radiative forcing
by greenhouse gases (as well as about 40% of the carbon dioxide).
As noted above, the IPCC report concedes that "almost all historical simulations do not reproduce the observed recent warming hiatus." It argues that the difference "could be caused by some combination of (a) internal climate variability, (b) missing or incorrect radiative forcing
, and (c) model response error." That is to say, the projections are being thrown by pesky natural climate fluctuations, and possible errors in calculating how much warming a given greenhouse gas will produce.
C[O.sub.2] is the leading human activity related (hereon referred as, anthropogenic) GHG and has been mentioned in various researches as contributing the most to the increased levels of global warming that through its radiative forcing
and greenhouse effect.
Key words: AERONET, Refractive index, Asymmetry parameter, Radiative forcing
Consequently, the visibility is reduced and the local radiative forcing
is significantly affected.
The WMO says greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere reached record concentrations in 2011, and reported Tuesday a 30 percent increase in "radiative forcing
" the warming effect on climate, between 1990 and 2011.
1, we chose one with a target radiative forcing
of 2.6W[m.sup.-2] at the stabilization stage, labeled RCP 2.6.8),9) Apparently, this target corresponds to an equilibrium temperature rise of 2 [degrees]C (to be precise, 2.1 [degrees]C), if we adopt 3[degrees]C as the most likely value of climate sensitivity.