Measurements of electrical impedance at frequencies ranging from a few tens of kilohertz to about 1 gigahertz. In the electrical context, impedance is defined as the ratio of voltage to current (or electrical field strength to magnetic field strength), and it is measured in units of ohms (Ω). See Electrical impedance

At zero frequency, that is, when the current involved is a direct current, both voltage and current are expressible as real numbers. Their ratio, the resistance, is a scalar (real) number. However, at nonzero frequencies, the voltage is not necessarily in phase with the current, and both are represented by vectors, and therefore are conveniently described by using complex numbers. To distinguish between the scalar quantity of resistance at zero frequency and the vectorial quantity at nonzero frequencies, the word impedance is used for the complex ratio of voltage to current. See Electrical resistance

The measurement of impedance at radio frequencies cannot always be performed directly by measuring an rf voltage and dividing it by the corresponding rf current, for the following reasons: (1) it may be difficult to measure rf voltages and currents without loading the circuit by the sensing probes; (2) the distributed parasitic reactances (stray capacitances to neighboring objects, and lead inductances) may be altered by the sensing probes; and (3) the spatial voltage and current distributions may prevent unambiguous measurements (in waveguides, for instance).

At low frequencies, impedance measurements are often carried out by measuring separately the resistive and reactive parts, using either Q-meter instruments (for resonance methods) or reconfigurable bridges, which are sometimes called universal LCR (inductance-capacitance-resistance) bridges. In one such bridge the resistive part of the impedance is measured at dc with a Wheatstone bridge. Capacitive reactance is measured with a series-resistance-capacitance bridge, and inductive reactance is measured with a Maxwell bridge, using alternating-current (ac) excitation and a standard capacitance. See Wheatstone bridge

Transformer bridges are capable of operating up to 100 MHz. The use of transformers offers the following advantages: (1) only two bridge arms are needed, the standard and the unknown arms, and (2) both the detector and the source may be grounded at one of their terminals, minimizing ground-loop problems and leakage.

A coaxial line admittance bridge is usable from 20 MHz to 1.5 GHz. The currents flowing in three coaxial branch lines are driven from a common junction, and are sampled by three independently rotatable, electrostatically shielded loops, whose outputs are connected in parallel.

A quantity related to impedance is the complex (voltage) reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to the incident voltage, when waves propagate along a uniform transmission line in both directions. Usually, uppercase gamma (Γ) or lowercase rho (ρ) is used to represent the reflection coefficient. When a transmission line of characteristic impedance Z0 is terminated in impedance ZT, the reflection coefficient at the load is given by Eq. (1), and the voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) is related to the magnitude of Γ by Eq. (2). (1) (2) When it is sufficient to measure only the voltage standing-wave ratio, resistive bridges may be used. Resistive bridges employed as reflectometers use a matched source and detector, and therefore differ from the Wheatstone bridge, which aims to use a zero-impedance voltage source and an infinite-impedance detector.

Some specialized electronic instruments make use of the basic definition of impedance, and effectively measure voltage and current. One such instrument is called an rf vector impedance meter. Instead of measuring both the voltage and the current, it drives a constant current into the unknown impedance, and the resultant voltage is measured.

Vector voltmeters (VVM) are instruments with two (high-impedance) voltmeter probes, which display the voltages at either probe (relative to ground) as well as the phase difference between them. One type operates from 1 MHz to 1 GHz, and linearly converts to a 20-kHz intermediate frequency by sampling.

When the magnitude of the reactive part of the impedance is much greater than the resistive part at a given frequency, resonance methods may be employed to measure impedance. The most commonly used instrument for this purpose is the Q meter. See Q meter

At the upper end of the rf range, microwave methods of impedance measurement may also be used, employing slotted lines and six-port junctions. See Microwave measurements

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Physics. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Measurements of electrical impedance at frequencies ranging from a few tens of kilohertz to about 1 gigahertz. In the electrical context, impedance is defined as the ratio of voltage to current (or electrical field strength to magnetic field strength), and it is measured in units of ohms (Ω).

At zero frequency, that is, when the current involved is a direct current, both voltage and current are expressible as real numbers. Their ratio, the resistance, is a scalar (real) number. However, at nonzero frequencies, the voltage is not necessarily in phase with the current, and both are represented by vectors, and therefore are conveniently described by using complex numbers. To distinguish between the scalar quantity of resistance at zero frequency and the vectorial quantity at nonzero frequencies, the word impedance is used for the complex ratio of voltage to current. See Alternating current, Direct current

The measurement of impedance at radio frequencies cannot always be performed directly by measuring an rf voltage and dividing it by the corresponding rf current, for the following reasons: (1) it may be difficult to measure rf voltages and currents without loading the circuit by the sensing probes; (2) the distributed parasitic reactances (stray capacitances to neighboring objects, and lead inductances) may be altered by the sensing probes; and (3) the spatial voltage and current distributions may prevent unambiguous measurements (in waveguides, for instance).

At low frequencies, impedance measurements are often carried out by measuring separately the resistive and reactive parts, using either Q-meter instruments (for resonance methods), or reconfigurable bridges, which are sometimes called universal LCR (inductance-capacitance-resistance) bridges. In one such bridge the resistive part of the impedance is measured at dc with a Wheatstone bridge. Capacitive reactance is measured with a series-resistance-capacitance bridge, and inductive reactance is measured with a Maxwell bridge, using alternating-current (ac) excitation and a standard capacitance.

Transformer bridges are capable of operating up to 100 MHz. The use of transformers offers the following advantages: (1) only two bridge arms are needed, the standard, and the unknown arms, and (2) both the detector and the source may be grounded at one of their terminals, minimizing ground-loop problems and leakage. See Transformer

A coaxial line admittance bridge is usable from 20 MHz to 1.5 GHz. The currents flowing in three coaxial branch lines are driven from a common junction, and are sampled by three independently rotatable, electrostatically shielded loops, whose outputs are connected in parallel.

A quantity related to impedance is the complex (voltage) reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the reflected voltage to the incident voltage, when waves propagate along a uniform transmission line in both directions. Usually, uppercase gamma (Γ) or lowercase rho (ρ) is used to represent the reflection coefficient. When a transmission line of characteristic impedance Z0 is terminated in impedance ZT, the reflection coefficient at the load is given by Eq. (1), and the voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) is related to the magnitude of Γ by Eq. (2). (1) (2) See Transmission lines.

When it is sufficient to measure only the voltage standing-wave ratio, resistive bridges may be used. Resistive bridges employed as reflectometers use a matched source and detector, and therefore differ from the Wheatstone bridge, which aims to use a zero-impedance voltage source and an infinite-impedance detector.

Some specialized electronic instruments make use of the basic definition of impedance, and effectively measure voltage and current. One such instrument is called an rf vector impedance meter. Instead of measuring both the voltage and the current, it drives a constant current into the unknown impedance, and the resultant voltage is measured.

Vector voltmeters (VVM) are instruments with two (high-impedance) voltmeter probes, which display the voltages at either probe (relative to ground) as well as the phase difference between them. One type operates from 1 MHz to 1 GHz, and linearly converts to a 20-kHz intermediate frequency by sampling.

When the magnitude of the reactive part of the impedance is much greater than the resistive part at a given frequency, resonance methods may be employed to measure impedance. The most commonly used instrument for this purpose is the Q meter. See Q meter

At the upper end of the rf range, microwave methods of impedance measurement may also be used, employing slotted lines and six-port junctions. See Microwave measurements

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Engineering. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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