Radioactive Aerosol

Radioactive Aerosol

 

a natural or artificial aerosol with a radioactive dispersed phase.

Natural radioactive aerosols form as a result of the decay of radon isotopes emitted from the soil surface into the atmosphere, as well as during the interaction of particles of cosmic radiation with the nuclei of atoms of elements that are components of the air. The radioactive atoms thus formed precipitate onto particles of nonradioactive atmospheric dust. In addition, dust containing radioactive isotopes of potassium, uranium, and thorium is carried from the soil surface into the atmosphere by winds. A certain quantity of radioactive aerosols enters the atmosphere with cosmic dust and meteorites.

Artificial radioactive aerosols containing fission products and radioactive isotopes with induced radioactivity are formed within a certain radius from the explosion of a nuclear bomb, as well as in industrial or accidental radioactive emissions at atomic industry plants, in uranium mines, and in enrichment plants.

The composition of radioactive aerosols depends on their origin and on atmospheric conditions.

References in periodicals archive ?
A University of Texas research has shown that the amount of radiation emanating from the Fukushima nuclear disaster increased the atmospheric radioactive aerosol level in Washington from 10,000 to 100,000 times above normal level.
These same scientists also recognized but dismissed as negligible (perhaps prematurely) the inherent dangers to advancing friendly troops that inhale the resultant radioactive aerosol created by the exploding DU shells.
New material on low-level environmental analysis of radioactivity including new chapters on the mass spectrometry of radionuclides, radioactive aerosol measurements as well as new chapters on environmental radioactivity monitoring and marine radioactivity analysis.
New 3rd edition is broader in scope including seven additional chapters on Alpha Spectrometry, Radionuclide Standardization, Radioactive Aerosol Measurements, Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring, Marine Radioactivity Analysis, Nuclear Forensic Analysis and Analytical Techniques in Nuclear Safeguards.
A sampling of coverage in the 23 contributions: breathing zone exposure assessment, mechanisms of particle deposition, aerosol chemistry and physics, health effects of ambient ultrafine particles, nanoparticle cell penetration, radioactive aerosols, filtration and sampling of fibrous filters, radioactive aerosols of the Chernobyl accidence, and lung cancer risk associated with radon and thoron, among other topics.
Until about 10 years ago, she says, severe-accidentmodels tended to ignore the quantity of radioactive aerosols that might be released, but recent studies have shown that a pressurized-water reactor, like N-Reactor, might generate tons.
That's important because in the first hours to days after an accident is initiated, many of the more biologically hazardous radioactive aerosols will settle out, adhering to surfaces in the reactor vessel--and, if the vessel breaches, onto structures within the surrounding containment building.
28 Radioactive Aerosols 29 Measurement of Cloud and Aerosol Particles from Aircraft