Radiosensitization


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Radiosensitization

 

the process of artificially increasing the radiosensitivity of biological objects; it is accompanied by intensification of the effects of ionizing radiation.

There are three principal methods of radiosensitization. The first involves a decrease in the protective mechanisms of the cells and organisms themselves. Such a decrease may be brought about by means of the chemical bonding of endogenic thiols, which is accompanied by an increase in the oxidation-reduction potential in the cells. The second method of radiosensitization involves suppression of reparation after radiation damage through the use of acriflavine, caffein, or chemical agents that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation in the cells. Hormonal suppression of the regeneration of hemopoietic and lymphoid tissue is also possible. The third principal method of radiosensitization involves the creation of unfavorable conditions for the raising and maintenance of irradiated objects, which often leads to aggravation of the effects of irradiation.

The elaboration of methods of radiosensitization is significant in increasing the effectiveness of radiation sterilization and the use of radiation to treat malignant neoplasms.

V. I. KOROGODIN

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Perillyl alcohol mediated radiosensitization via augmentation of the Fas pathway in prostate cancer cells.
They showed that survivin promoter-driven small interfering RNA expression vector targeting hTERT may have potential use in radiosensitization therapy with a targeted tumor gene silencing effect.
Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that combination of TMZ and LND at clinically achievable, low plasma concentrations could inhibit tumour growth, and lonidamine could reduce the dose of temozolomide required for radiosensitization of brain tumours.
Darinaparsin-mediated radiosensitization was observed in prostate tumors with both single and fractionated irradiation dosing regimens.
David Kozono, MD, PhD, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute , for "Biomarkers for NSCLC radiosensitization by proteasome inhibition"
Other studies have correlated chromatin compaction induced by trichostatin A, a HDAC inhibitor in irradiated cells with the extent of radiosensitization (67).
Interference with endogenous radioprotectors as a method of radiosensitization in "IAEA's Modification of Radiosensitivity of Biological Systems.
Darinaparsin's multiple mechanisms of action and potency provide for cytotoxicity and radiosensitization in a variety of tumor cell lines and environments," commented Dr.
Ionizing radiation activates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK): a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells.
Recently, the beneficial effects of TET on cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, radiosensitization, circumventing multidrug resistance, normal tissue radioprotection, and antiangiogenesis have been examined extensively.
Chloroquine-mediated radiosensitization is due to the destabilization of the lysosomal membrane and subsequent induction of cell death by necrosis.