a metal element of a railroad track; a joint rail fastening joins rail ends and an interjacent rail fastening joins a rail to a railroad sleeper.
Joint rail fastenings include fish plates and bolts with washers. Interjacent rail fastenings include one-piece, compound, and combination rail fastenings. One-piece rail fastenings attach a rail and the chair. Together, they are secured to the sleeper with spikes or wood screws. Compound rail fastenings attach a rail to a chair usually with clips and bolts and the chair to a sleeper with bolts or wood screws. Combination rail fastenings include elements of both one-piece and compound fastenings.
The selection of a rail fastening depends on the rail type, the freight-traffic density of the line, and the operating conditions. Rail fastenings are standardized in the USSR.